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Third Position is a revolutionary nationalist political ideology that emphasizes its opposition to both communism and capitalism. Advocates of Third Position politics present themselves as "neither left nor right", instead combining ideas from both. Third Positionists tend to defend the interests of the "productive" working class, seek alliances with separatists of ethnicity other than their own to achieve "separate but equal" ethnic segregation, support national liberation movements in the least developed countries, and have recently embraced neopaganism and environmentalism.
Scholars, such as Roger Griffin, view Third Positionism as a minor branch of fascism, which rejects both Marxism and liberalism for a form of racial socialism or, more precisely, an ideology which combines a tribal form of racial nationalism with a corporatist, distributist or solidarist economic system. The main precursors of Third Position politics are National Bolshevism, a synthesis of nationalism and communism, and Strasserism, a radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism.
Third Position ideology gained some support in France where, in 1985, Jean-Gilles Malliarakis set up Troisime Voie (TV). Considering its main enemies to be the United States, communism and Zionism, the group advocated radical paths to national revolution. Associated for a time with the Groupe Union Dfense, TV was generally on poor terms with Front National until 1991, when Malliarakis decided to approach them. As a result, TV fell apart, although a radical splinter group under Christian Bouchet, Nouvelle Rsistance, continued to be informed by Third Position views.
Querfront (cross-front) was a term used to describe cooperation between conservative revolutionaries in Germany with the far left during the Weimar Republic of the 1920s. The term is also used today for mutual entryism or cooperation between left and right-wing groups. On the left, the Communist social fascism strategy focused against the Social Democrats, resulting in a stalemate and incidents of temporary cooperation with genuine fascist and ultranationalist forces. Ernst Niekisch and others tried to combine communist and anti-capitalist nationalist forces to overthrow the existing order of the Weimar Republic. He called this merger National Bolshevism. Kurt von Schleicher pursued a strategy of demerging the left wing of the Nazi Party, to split the whole Nazi movement, and prevent Adolf Hitler's rise to power. Schleicher's idea was to merge left-leaning Nazis and the trade unions, but his plan failed.
The term Querfront today refers a close connection or similar approaches of left and right-wing radicals. Anti-Americanism and Antizionism have led to attempts by far right individuals to find common ground with parts of the peace movement and anti-globalization movements. In particular Eastern Germany, especially Thuringia, has seen significant activity of this kind.
In Italy, the Third Position was developed by Roberto Fiore, along with Gabriele Adinolfi and Peppe Di Mitri, in the tradition of Italian neo-fascism. Third Position–s ideology is characterized by a militarist formulation, a palingenetic ultranationalism looking favourably to national liberation movements, support for racial separatism and the adherence to a soldier lifestyle.
In order to construct a cultural background for the ideology, Fiore looked to the ruralism of Julius Evola and sought to combine it with the desire for a cultural-spiritual revolution and the creation of a omul nou (new man) as called for by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu. He adopted some of the positions of the contemporary far right, notably the ethnopluralism of Alain de Benoist and the Europe-wide appeal associated with such views as the Europe a Nation campaign of Oswald Mosley (amongst others). Fiore was one of the founders of the Terza Posizione movement in 1979. Third Position ideas are now represented in Italy by Forza Nuova, led by Fiore.
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Fiore's exile in the United Kingdom during the 1980s saw the export of Third Position to the UK, where it was taken up by a group of neo-fascists including Patrick Harrington and Derek Holland, who soon became known as the Official National Front. They called for the creation of Political Soldiers, who would be devoted to nationalism and racial separatism, also helping to clarify the economic stance of the Third Position by drawing from the early 20th century distributists, Social Creditors, guild socialists and other "radical patriots". Within the UK, the ideology was less overtly Catholic than in Italy, although Catholic social teaching remained an important aspect.
With the split of the National Front, the Third Position stance in Britain was carried on by the group Third Way, and more notably the International Third Position (ITP). Renamed England First, ITP continues to organise on a small scale and has produced a Third Position Handbook that details the aims of the movement.
In the United States, Third Position politics has been promoted by some white nationalist groups, such as the National Alliance, Rockford Institute, American Front, and White Aryan Resistance, as well as some black nationalist groups, such as the Nation of Islam, since the late 20th century. In 2010, the American Third Position Party was founded, in part, to channel the right-wing populist resentment engendered by the financial crisis of 2007–2010 into a third party capable of challenging the two-party system.
Third Position adherents in the U.S. actively seek to recruit from the left by attempting to convince progressive activists to join forces to oppose certain government policies where there is a shared critique, primarily around such issues as the use of U.S. troops in foreign military interventions, support for Israel, the problems of CIA misconduct and covert action, domestic government repression, privacy rights, and civil liberties.
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