German History

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Connexions Library

The Accumulation of Capital
Luxemburg, Rosa
Book
1913
Rosa Luxemburg's analysis of the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation.
The Acheron in Motion
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1918
The healthy class instinct of the proletariat rebels against the schema of parliamentary cretinism. 'The liberation of the working class must be the work of the working class itself,' says the Communi...
Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century 1914 - 1991
Hobsbawm, Eric
Book
1994
A overview of the history of the years 1914 - 1991.
Anti-Socialist Laws: Connexipedia Article
Article
Were a series of acts, the first of which was passed on October 19, 1878 by the German Reichstag for a limited term, and the later ones regularly extending the term of its application.
Beating the fascists? The German Communists and political violence 1929-1933
Rosenhaft, Eve
Article
2016
Eve Rosenhaft examines the involvement of Communist Party militants in political violence against Nazis during the years of Hitler's rise to power in Germany (1929-33). Specifically, she aims to accou...
The Beginning
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1918
Revolutions do not stand still. Their vital law is to advance rapidly, to outgrow themselves.
Bernstein and the Marxism of the Second International
Coletti, Lucio
Article
1969
An essay from the collection entitled From Rouseau to Lenin: Studies in Ideology and Society, First published as Ideologia e Societá by Editori Laterza, Rome, Italy.
Blood and Belonging: Journey into the New Nationalism
Ignatieff, Michael
Book
1993
Essays on nationalism in Serbia, Croatia, Germany, Ukraine, Quebec, Kurdistan, and Northern Ireland.
Briefe aus dem Gefangnis
Luxemburg, Rosa
Book
1946
Class Composition and the Theory of the Party at the Origin of the Workers-Councils Movement
Bologna, Sergio
Article
1972
Re-examines a crucial segment of labour history, the German workers' council experience, which bridges the classical socialist phase of the Second and Third Internationals, and the post-Keynesian peri...
The Complete Works of Rosa Luxemburg, Volume I: Economic Writings 1
Luxemburg, Rosa (Edited by Peter Hudis
Book
This first volume in Rosa Luxemburg's Complete Works, entitled Economic Writings 1, contains some of Luxemburg's most important statements on the globalization of capital, wage labour, imperialism, an...
Concerning Morocco
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1911
The duty of Social Democracy is not to reassure public opinion, but to do the very reverse, to rouse it and warn it against the dangers lying dormant in it such adventures in international politics to...
Critique of the Gotha Programme
Marx, Karl
Article
1875
Karl Marx's criticisms of the programme adopted by congress to unite the two German socialist parties in 1875.
Debates on the Law on Thefts of Wood
Marx, Karl
Article
1842
A deputy from the knightly estate mentioned that in the neighbourhood of Cleve many wood thefts took place merely in order to secure arrest and prison fare. Does not this deputy from the knightly esta...
Eichmann in Jerusalem: A report on the banality of evil
Arendt, Hannah
Book
1963
Hannah Arendt's report on the trial of Adolph Eichmann.
Either Or
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1916
It is a question of either-or! Either we nakedly and shamelessly betray the International or we take the International in deadly seriousness and attempt to extend it into a firm stronghold, a bulwark,...
The Elections to the National Assembly
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1918
The great confrontation between capital and labour will determine the course of future history and, in its final result, admits of no other decision than the destruction of capitalist rule and the tri...
Erfurt Program: Connexipedia Article
Article
Program was adopted by the Social Democratic Party of Germany during the SPD congress at Erfurt in 1891.
The Erfurt Program: Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands
Article
1891
Program of Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands.
Expulsion of Germans after World War II: Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia
Article
By the end of World War II, most of the German population fled or was expelled from areas outside the territory of post-war Germany and post-war Austria,
The Expulsion of the Germans
Zayas, Alfred de
Article
1999
If the conscience of men ever again becomes sensitive, these expulsions will be remembered to the undying shame of all who committed or connived them... The Germans were expelled, not just with an abs...
Fascism and Big Busness
Guerin, Daniel
Book
1939
A history of the rise of fascism in Europe and the role of big business in supporting fascism.
Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe
Naimark, Norman M.
Book
2002
A history of genocide, ethnic cleansing and forced deportation of ethnic groups in the 20th century.
The German Revolution - First Stage
Pannekoek, Anton
Article
1919
Through its rapidity and unanimity the revolution rested on the surface of civil society and could not as yet penetrate into the depth of the great masses.
German Revolution History Archive
Website
A history archive dedicated to the documentation, analysis and interpretation of the events surrounding the German workers revolutions of 1918 through 1923.
German Revolution of 1918-19: Connexipedia Article
Article
The politically-driven civil conflict in Germany at the end of World War I.
Germany and Britain: Memory and Myopia
Malik, Kenan
Article
2014
Ernst Barlach was one of Germany's great expressionist artists of the early twentieth century. A virulent nationalist in the run-up to the First World War, Barlach found that his experience of the Wes...
Germany and European Civilization
James, C.L.R. (writing as J.R. Johnson)
Article
1944
From at least the time of the publication of Capital to the present day, all political and social thought, particularly in Europe, have revolved around the ideas of Marxism. And these ideas were nouri...
Germany and Genocide in Namibia: Special Issue of Pambazuka News - #577 - March 2012
Serial Publication (Periodical)
2012
Between 1904 and 1908 imperial Germany waged an atrocious and inhumane war of extermination against the Herero, Nama, Damara and San peoples in its former colony ‘German South West Africa’, now the Re...
Germany's genocide in Namibia
Grasdorff, Eric Van; Röschert, Nicolai; Manji, Firoze
Article
2012
Germany, which has done commendable remembrance work about the Holocaust, seems to have forgotten or deliberately buried its violent colonial past. A past that hides the first genocide of the 20th cen...
The Great Transformation: The political and economic origins of our time
Polanyi, Karl
Book
1944
Polanyi analyzes the social and political upheavals that took place in England during the rise of the market economy. Polanyi contends that the modern market economy and the modern nation-state should...
The History of the German Resistance 1933-1945: Widerstand, Staatsstreich, Attentat
Hoffman, Peter
Book
1969
A thorough portrayal of the plans, hesitations, frustrations, and failures of the opposition to Hitler.
The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures
Book
2003
A chronological account of the genocide of European Jews at the hands of the Nazis.
House of Cards
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1919
Again and again the revolution will bring to the fore the basic question: the general reckoning between labour and capital. And this reckoning is a world historical conflict between two mortal enemies...
IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation
Black, Edwin
Book
2001
Nazi Germany employed IBM Hollerith punch-card machines to perform critical tasks in carrying out the Holocaust and the German war effort, cranking out lists of Jews which were then turned over to th...
Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution: Volume I: State and Bureaucracy
Draper, Hal
Book
1977
A wide-ranging and thorough exposition of Marx's views on democracy.
Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution: Volume II: The Politics of Social Classes
Draper, Hal
Book
1978
Draper ranges through the development of the thought of Marx and Engels on the role of classes in society.
Kiel Naval Mutiny (Wilhelmshaven mutiny): Connexipedia Article
Article
A major mutiny by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet in October 1918.
Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II
Blum, William
Book
2008
Is the United States a force for democracy? William Blum serves up a forensic overview of U.S. foreign policy spanning sixty years. For those who want the details on the U.S.'s most famous actions (Ch...
The Lesson of Germany
James, C.L.R. (writing as J.R.Johnson)
Article
1945
Hitler's hundreds of thousands of storm troopers represented an enormous expense. They were thugs hired by the German bourgeoisie to fight its battles against the working class. In the years 1930-33 t...
Letter to Bracke
Marx, Karl
Article
1875
Karl Marx comments on the unity programme (Gotha programme) of the German Democratic Workers Party and the People's Party.
Live Working or Die Fighting: How the Working Class Went Global
Mason, Paul
Book
2010
Mason realtes a series of struggles for worker and human rights over the past two hundred years and compares them to current struggles.
Luxemburg, Müller and the Berlin workers' and soldiers' councils
Rose, John
Article
2015
Rose reviews and discusses two important books about the German Revolution, "Working-Class Politics in the German Revolution: Richard Müller, the Revolutionary Shop Stewards and the Origins of the Cou...
The Mark
Engels, Friedrich
Article
1892
A short essay on the primitive form of collective land ownership in Germany and the subsequent development of private property.
Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 7: Marx and Engels 1848
Marx, Karl; Engels, Friedrich
Book
1848
Includes articles from the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, June 1 - November 7, 1848.
Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 8: Marx and Engels 1848 - 1849
Marx, Karl; Engels, Friedrich
Book
1849
Includes articles from the Neue Rheinische Zeitung November 8, 1848 - March 5, 1849.
Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 10: Marx and Engels 1849 - 1851
Marx, Karl; Engels, Friedrich
Book
Includes The Peasant War in Germany.
Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 11: Marx and Engels 1851 - 1853
Marx, Karl; Engels, Friedrich
Book
Includes Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany and The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte and Revelations Concerning the Communist Trial in Cologne
Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 26: Engels 1882 - 1889
Engels, Friedrich
Book
1889
Includes Manuscripts on Early German History and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, and Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy, and The Role of Force in His...
A Marxist History of the World part 59: The Franco-Prussian War
Faulkner, Neil
Article
2012
In this week's chapter of the Marxist History series Neil Faulkner looks at how Germany’s ruling elite brought about a bourgeois revolution ‘from above’.
A Marxist History of the World part 60: The Paris Commune: the face of proletarian revolution
Faulkner, Neil
Article
2012
The Franco-Prussian war produced the first proletarian revolution in history, and showed to the world for the first time what a workers’ state looks like.
A Marxist History of the World part 68: 1914: descent into barbarism
Faulkner, Neil
Article
2012
In the summer of 1914 capitalism tipped humanity into an abyss of barbarism that would leave millions dead. Neil Faulkner looks at the First World War.
A Marxist History of the World part 75: The German Revolution
Faulkner, Neil
Article
2012
At the end of the First World War, the epicentre of revolution moved from Petrograd to Berlin. Why did the German communists fail where the Bolsheviks had succeded?
A Marxist History of the World part 83: 1933: The Nazi seizure of power
Faulkner, Neil
Article
2012
By the early 1930s, the German ruling class was determined to use the Nazis to make the world safe for German capital. But the fascist victory was not inevitable – it resulted from the failure of thos...
The Mass Psychology of Fascism
Reich, Wilhelm
Book
1933
Wilhelm Reich's class study, written during the years of the German crisis. Reich repudiates the concept that fascism is the ideology or action of a single individual or nationality, or any ethnic or ...
The National Assembly
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1918
Today it is not a question of democracy or dictatorship. The question that history has placed on the agenda is: bourgeois democracy or socialist democracy?
The Nazi Seizure of Power: The Experience of a Single German Town
Allen, William Sheridan
Book
A study of how the Nazi takeover took place in one German town.
The Next Step
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1910
A decision must be made as to whether German Social Democracy, which is supported by the strongest trade-union organization and the greatest army of voters in the world, can bring about a mass action ...
The No-Nonsense Guide to Terrorism
Barker, Jonathan
Book
2003
An in-depth look at the nature of terrorism that discusses questioning terrorism, assessing it, the difference between state terrorism and group terrorism, morality and history, and war and politics.
Observations in Germany
Serge, Victor
Article
1923
Oh! How -- German is this Revolution!
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1918
The existing penal system, breathing the spirit of brutal class-spirit and capitalist barbarism must be torn up by the roots. A fundamental system of prison-reform must be inaugurated immediately.
On the Spartacus Programme
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1918
For us the conquest of power will not be effected at one blow. It will be a progressive act, for we shall progressively occupy all the positions. of the capitalist state, defending tooth and nail each...
Order Prevails in Berlin
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1919
Rosa Luxemburg's last article, written just before she was murdered. She concludes with the words: "You foolish lackeys! Your 'order' is built on sand. Tomorrow the revolution will 'rise up again, cl...
Our Program and the Political Situation
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1918
Tthe text of a speech by Rosa Luxemburg to the Founding Congress of the Communist Party of Germany (Spartacus League), made on December 31, 1918.
Party and Class in Revolutionary Crises
Post, Charlie
Article
2011
While the pre-World War I Lenin and the Bolsheviks did not leave original theoretical tools to guide the reconstruction of revolutionary workers’ organizations, the study of their historical experienc...
The Peasant Question in France and Germany
Engels, Friedrich
Article
1894
Part of the current debate around agrarian issues in which Engels discusses a policy of alliance between the working class and the working peasantry.
The Peasant War in Germany
Engels, Friedrich
Book
1850
The Peasant War in Germany was the first history book to assert that the real motivating force behind the Reformation and 16th-century peasant war was socio-economic (class conflict) rather than "mere...
A People's History of the World: From the Stone Age to the New Millennium
Harman, Chris
Book
1999
Harman describes the shape and course of human history as a narrative of ordinary people forming and re-forming complex societies in pursuit of common human goals.
The Police and the 1918-19 German Revolution: A Correction to Our Militant Labour Pamphlet
Article
2015
After the SPD took the helm of the government, Emil Eichhorn, a member of the left wing of the USPD, became the Berlin chief of police, acting on the false view that this arm of the bourgeois state co...
The Prosperous Few and the Restless Many
Chomsky, Noam
Book
1993
a collection of short commentaries by Noam Chomsky on global issues, drawn from interviews in the early 1990s. Topics include global economics, racism, NAFTA, and hot topics of the day.
Red Rosa: A Graphic Biography of Rosa Luxemburg
Evans, Kate; Buhle, Paul
Book
2015
A giant of the political left, Rosa Luxemburg is one of the foremost minds in the canon of revolutionary socialist thought. Red Rosa gives Luxemburg her due as a radical and human being. In this beaut...
Resistance in Europe: 1939 - 45
Hawes, Stephen; White, Ralph; (eds)
Book
1975
Essays on the resistance against Hitler during World War II.
Responsibility and Judgment
Arendt, Hannah
Book
Revelations Concerning the Communist Trial in Cologne
Marx, Karl
Book
1852
Marx exposes the unseemly methods used by the Prussian police state against the communist movement.
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states: Connexipedia Article
Article
"Germany" at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 39 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation. As nationalist sentiment crystallized into resistance to the traditio...
Rosa Luxemburg: Abridged Edition
Nettl, Peter
Book
1966
A biography of Luxemburg by a British academic.
Rosa Luxemburg: Selected Political Writings
Luxemburg, Rosa (edited with an introduction by Robert Looker)
Book
1972
A selection of Rosa Luxemburg's writings which highlight her outstanding contributions to the theory and practice of revolutionary socialism.
The Rosa Luxemburg Reader
Luxemburg, Rosa. [Anderson, Kevin; Hudis, Peter (eds.)]
Book
2004
A definitive one-volume collection of Luxemburg's writings.
Rosa Luxemburg, Women's Liberation, and Marx's Philosophy of Revolution
Dunayevskaya, Raya
Book
1981
Part I - Rosa Luxemburg as Theoretician, as Activist, as Internationalist. Part II - The Women's Liberation Movement as Revolutionary Force and Reason. Part III - Karl Marx: From Critic of Hegel to Au...
The Scramble for Africa: White Man's Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912
Pakenham, Thomas
Book
1991
Describes the brief vicious scramble by Europe's imperial powers to seize colonies throughout the continent of Africa. Pakenham strips the impresarios of imperialism of their veneer of Victorian heroi...
Seeds of Fire: A People's Chronology
Diemer, Ulli
Article
2012
Recalling events that happened on this day in history. Memories of struggle, resistance and persistence.
Sex-Pol: Essays 1929-1934
Reich, Wilhelm; (Baxandall, Lee, ed.)
Book
1934
Wilhelm Reich's writings from his Marxist period, outlining his thoughts about sexual and political liberation.
'68: The Year of the Barricades
Caute, David
Book
1988
Caute's book looks at the explosive year 1968 (while situating it in the context of what had led up to it). One of the great strengths of this excellent book is that it looks at what was happening aro...
Social Democracy and the Paradox of the Vanguard: Rudolf Hilferding's Odyssey
Smaldone, William
Article
1998
THE NAZI SEIZURE of power in the winter of 1933 marked the total failure of the reformist project of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD) and brought about the party's virtual destruction. From ex...
Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund: Connexipedia Article
Article
German socialist students' organization.
Spartacist uprising: Connexipedia Article
Article
A general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from January 5 to January 12, 1919.
Spot The Difference
Avnery, Uri
Article
2009
When I first brought up the similarity between Prussia and Israel (in a chapter dedicated to this theme in the Hebrew and German editions of my 1967 book, "Israel Without Zionists") it might have look...
Stalin and German Communism
Mattick, Paul
Article
1949
Die Standhaften: Über den Widerstand in Kassel und Hessen-Waldeck 1933-1945
Belz, Willi
Book
1960
Lokalhistorische Studie zum Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus.
The State of Germany
Engels, Friedrich
Article
1845
The Struggle Against Fascism in Germany
Trotsky, Leon
Book
A collection of Trotsky's writings on the situation in Germany from 1930 to 1940.
A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950
Zayas, Alfred-Maurice de
Book
1994
About the expulsion of Germans after World War II.
Uprising of 1953 in East Germany: Connexipedia Article
Article
A widespread uprising against the Stalinist German Democratic Republic government.
Utopia or Auschwitz: Germany's 1968 Generation and the Holocaust
Kundnani, Hans
Book
2009
In 1968 various student movements had risen up in post-war Europe. The movement in Germany, however, had the long shadow of their parents' roles in Nazism and World War Two.
Was the German Revolution defeated by January 1919?
Phillips, Tony
Article
2016
John Rose argued in his talk at Marxism 2014 that the German Revolution had effectively suffered terminal defeat by January 1919. The National Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Councils voted in Dece...
What are the Leaders Doing?
Luxemburg, Rosa
Article
1919
It is a revolution with all its externally chaotic development, with its alternating ebb and flow, with momentary surges towards the seizure of power and equally momentary recessions of the revolution...
Wie Alles Anfing: How it All Began - The Personal Account of a West German Urban Guerilla
Baumann, Bommi
Book
1975
The original German edition of Wie Alles Anfing was seized by security police when it appeared in 1975. The resulting trial and publicity raised an international outrcy and the book has since been rep...
Wir sind nackt und nennen uns Du: Von Lichtfreunden und Sonnenkampfern; eine Geschichte der Freikorperkultur
Andritzky, Michael; Rautenberg, Thomas
Book
1989
Fesselnde Kulturgeschichte der FKK-Bewegung von Kaisers Zeiten bis in die 1970er.
A Woman in Berlin
Anonymous
Book
1954
The anonymous author describes the degradation of Berlin women at the hands of Russian troops at the end of the Second World War.

Connexions Directory of Groups & Websites

Bureau of Public Secrets
Articles from a Situationist perspective.
Marxists Internet Archive
Large archive of the writings of Marx and Engels and of others in the Marxist tradition. Searchable.
Red Menace, The
The online archive of the libertarian socialist newsletter The Red Menace. Articles on socialism, Marxism, anarchism, work, popular education, organizing, wages for housework, Leninism, bureaucracy, h...

Sources Experts & Spokespersons

Deutsches Historisches Museum
The Deutsches Historisches Museum (DHM, German Historical Museum) was founded in 1987 by the chancellor of Germany, Helmut Kohl, and the mayor of Berlin, Eberhard Diepgen, on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of the founding o...
Marxists Internet Archive
Large archive of the writings of Marx and Engels and of others in the Marxist tradition. Searchable.

Sources Library

Badische Revolution
Wikipedia article
Unter der Badischen Revolution von 1848/1849 versteht man den regionalen Ablauf der fast ganz Mitteleuropa erfassenden revolutionären Unruhen dieser Jahre im Großherzogtum Baden.
German denial of Herero genocide
Jumah, Saunders
2012
The Germans’ inhuman treatment of the Namibian delegation is only the most recent in a long history of injustice and disrespect towards African peoples. It is more than time, writes Saunders Jumah, fo...
The Holocaust
The Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945
Yahail, Leni
1990
An comprehensive history of Hitler's war on the Jews of Europe.
Pan-Germanism
Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia
Pan-Germanism was a political movement of the 19th century aiming for unity of the German-speaking populations of Europe, identified as Volksdeutsche ("ethnic Germans").
Swing Kids
Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia
The Swing Kids (German: Swingjugend) were a group of jazz and Swing lovers in Germany of the 1930s, mainly in Hamburg (St. Pauli) and Berlin. They were composed of 14- to 18-year old boys and girls in...
Wandervogel
Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia
Wandervogel is the name adopted by a popular movement of German youth groups from 1896 onward. The name can be translated as migratory bird and the ethos is to shake off the restrictions of society an...

From the Connexions Archives

Marxists Internet Archive
Website
Large archive of the writings of Marx and Engels and of others in the Marxist tradition. Searchable.
The Red Menace
A libertarian socialist newsletter
Serial Publication (Periodical)
1975
Articles on topics such as socialism, Marxism, anarchism, work, popular education, organizing, wages for housework, Leninism, bureaucracy, hierarchy, jargon, prostitution, obscenity, science fiction, ...