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2010 & later2000-20091980-19891970-19791960-1969Before 1960

Before 1960 Publications

1959

  1. A Dying Colonialism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959   Published: 1967
    Fanon reveals the various ways in which the people of Algeria, during the revolution, changed their centuries-old patterns of culture, or, conversely, embraced certain ancient forms of culture long derided by their colonialist oppressors as "rpimitive," in order to destroy those oppressors.
  2. Economics of the War Economy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1959
    Ever since Lord Keynes' dictum that wars - like pyramid-building and earthquakes - may serve to increase wealth, it has been increasingly recognized that war and preparation for war are necessary aspects of the prevailing economy and a condition of its proper functioning.
  3. Life Against Death
    Psychoanalytical meaning of history

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959
  4. Marx and Engels
    Basic Writings on Politics and Philosophy

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959
  5. Mirage of Health
    Utopias, Progress, and Biological Change

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959   Published: 1979
    Dubos attempts to show that while it may be comforting to imagine a life free of stresses and strains in a carefree world, this will remain an idle dream. Humans cannot hope to find another Paradise on earth, because paradise is a static concept while human life is a dynamic process.
  6. Modern Capitalism and Revolution
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959   Published: 1975
    For revolutionaries one central point must be grasped to understand how the system works: the struggle of human beings against their alientation, and the ensuing conflict and split in all spheres, aspects and moments of socia life. As long as this struggle is there there ruling strata will continue to be unable to organise their system in a coherent way, and society will lurch from one accident to another. These are the conditions for revolutionary activity in the present epoch -- and they are amply sufficient.
  7. Nationalism and Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1959
    Nations, whether "knitted together" by ideology, by objective conditions, or by the usual combination of both, are products of social development. There is no more point in cherishing or damning nationalism in principle than in cherishing or damning tribalism or, for that matter, an ideal cosmopolitanism. The nation is a fact to be suffered or enjoyed, to be fought for or against according to historical circumstances and the implications of those circumstances for various populations and different classes within these populations.
  8. Primitive Rebels
    Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959   Published: 1965
    A study of 'primitive' or 'archaic' forms of social agitation.
  9. A Prophet in Politics
    A Biography of J.S. Woodsworth

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959
    A biography of the Canadian socialist who became the first leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF).
  10. Requiem for a Fourteen-Year-Old
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1959
    Pierre Berton's poem, Requiem for a fourteen-year-old, appeared in the Toronto Star on Oct. 5, 1959; six days after 14-year-old Steven Truscott was sentenced to hang.
  11. Rosa Luxemburg
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959   Published: 1969
    A personification of the unity of theory and practice, Rosa Luxemburg's life and work require a description of her activities as well as her thoughts - they are inseparable.
  12. Socialism in One Country 1924-1926
    Volume 2

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959   Published: 1970
    Carr details the struggle for power within the Bolshevik party.

1958

  1. A Decentralist Manifesto
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1958
    No political institution can be considered human and properly adapted to the nature of humankind if it in any way infringes upon liberty; if it even in the slightest, interferes with the conditions necessary to individual self-expression and to the free development of the highest potentialities of being human.
  2. Facing Reality 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1958   Published: 1974
    Inspired by the October 1956 Hungarian workers' revolution against Stalinist oppression, as well as the U.S. workers' "wild-cat" strikes (against capital and the union bureaucracies), the authors looked ahead to the rise of new mass emancipatory movements by African Americans as well as anti-colonialist/anti-imperialist currents in Africa and Asia. Virtually alone among the radical texts of the time, Facing Reality also rejected modern society's mania for "conquering nature," and welcomed women's struggles "for new relations between the sexes."
  3. The Influence of Social Factors in Child Development
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1958
    f parents really wish that their children be not only successful but also to be mentally healthy, they must consider as essential those norms and values that lead to mental health and not only those that lead to success.
  4. The Mahatma and the Ism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1958
  5. A Marxian Oddity
    A review of Marxiam and Freedom. From 1776 Unitl Today, by Raya Dunayevskaya

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1958
    Paul Mattick says although Raya Dunayevskaya’s interpretation of Marxian doctrine is occasionally true and eloquent, this book as a whole is a scatterbrained hodge-podge of philosophical, economic and political ideas that defy description and serious criticism.
  6. Marxism and Freedom 
    From 1776 to Today

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1958   Published: 1971
    Dunayevskaya argues that Marx's theory is the generalisation of the instinctive striving of the proletariat for a new social order, a truly human society.
  7. Message of the Non-Jewish Jew
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1958
    The Jewish heretic who transcends Jewry belongs to a Jewish tradition.
  8. Notebook of an Agitator
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1958   Published: 1973
    Over 100 articles from the pen of an active participant in the events of thirty years of labor history. Cannon covers the campaigns to save Sacco and Vanzetti, the historic strikes of the 1930s, the Korean War, mcCarthyism, and prize fighting, movies, and the Catholic Church.
  9. The Origins of Totalitarianism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1958   Published: 1966
  10. Politics Past
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1958   Published: 1970
    A collection of essays by Dwight Macdonald.
  11. Puritanism and Revolution
    Studies in Interpretation of the English Revolution of the 17th century

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1958   Published: 1968
    A series of essays on the massive changes which occurred in seventeenth-century England.
  12. Socialism in One Country 1924-1926
    Volume 1

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1958   Published: 1970

1957

  1. The Breakdown of Nations
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1957
    Kohr maintains that throughout history, people who have lived in small states are happier, more peaceful, more creative and more prosperous. He argues that virtually all our political and social problems would be greatly diminished if the world's major countries were to dissolve back into the small states from which they sprang.
  2. The Critique of Capitalist Democracy
    An Introduction to the Theory of the State in Marx, Engels, and Lenin

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1957   Published: 1969
  3. The Hidden Persuaders
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1957
    What makes you buy, believe, even vote, the way you do? This book answers hundreds of eye-opening questions with facts that show how advertising men are using our hidden urges and frustrations to sell every-thing from gasoline to politicians.
  4. Ironies of History
    Essays on Contemporary Communism

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1957   Published: 1966
    A series of essays by Deutscher examinig the evolution of the so-called Communist world after Stalin.
  5. Israel's Arab Minority: The Great Land Robbery
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1957
    Something that is disturbing about those Israeli liberals who do tell the truth about the Arab minority is that they tend to pass the guilt off onto the backs of "the Jewish people." They ask how could "the Jewish people" do this to "a helpless minority" when it has itself been the victim of robbery and exploitation and has so often vowed itself to righteousness and justice? One must respect the motives of this breast-beating, but the content is distressing. It was not "the Jewish people" who did this but the Zionist authorities, the Zionist movement, and the Zionist government that bear the responsibility; and the difference is enormous.
  6. Mao's China
    Economic and Political Survey

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1957
  7. The Overworked American
    The Unexpected Decline Of Leisure

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1957   Published: 1993
    This book explains why, contrary to all expectations, Americans are working harder than ever. Juliet Schor presents the astonishing news that over the past twenty years our working hours have increased by the equivalent of one month per year—a dramatic spurt that has hit everybody: men and women, professionals as well as low-paid workers. Why are we—unlike every other industrialized Western nation—repeatedly ”choosing” money over time? And what can we do to get off the treadmill?
  8. Report on the Construction of Situations and on the International Situationist Tendency's Conditions of Organization and Action
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1957
    Founding manifesto of the Situationist International.
  9. The Uses of Literacy
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1957
    In this partly autobiographical book Hoggart observes the loss of an authentic popular culture and denounces the imposition of mass culture by the culture industries.
  10. Workers' Councils and the Economics of a Self-Managed Society
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1957   Published: 1974
    A translation of an essay, "Sur le Contenu du Socialisme," written by Cornelius Castoriadis under the pseudonym "Peirre Chalieu," and originally published in the journal Socialisme out Barbarie in 1957. Castoriadis writes that "the experience of bureaucratic capitalism allows us clearly to perceive what socialims is not and cannot be. A close look both a past proletarian uprising and at the everyday life and struggles of the working class - both East and West -- enables us to posit what socialism could be and should be."

1956

  1. The Art of Loving
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1956   Published: 1963
    Love, according to Erich Fromm, is the only satisfactory answer to the problem of human existence.
  2. The Brave Cowboy: An Old Tale in a New Time
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1956   Published: 1992
    Jack Burns has a steadfast refusal to accept the what he perceives as the tyranny of the twentieth century world he lives in. As he gets in trouble with the law, he finds himself running away from the authorities.
  3. Celebration of Awareness
    A Call for Institutional Revolution

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1956   Published: 1970
  4. The Economics of War and Peace
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1956
    Wars, like crises, are inherent in uncontrolled capital accumulation even though their actual occurrence in time is not predictable.
  5. Every Cook Can Govern 
    A Study of Democracy in Ancient Greece: Its Meaning for Today

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1956
    Modern parliamentary democracy elects representatives and these representatives constitute the government. Before the democracy came into power, the Greeks had been governed by various forms of government, including government by representatives. The democracy knew representative government and rejected it. It refused to believe that the ordinary citizen was not able to perform practically all the business of government.
  6. Fromm's sane society
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1956
  7. Israel's Arab Minority: The Beginning of a Tragedy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1956
    Excerpt:

    Without in the least derogating this moral indignation at the treatment of the Arab minority, which is richly justified, one aspect of the denunciation misses the mark. The moral indignation should not be visited in the first place against the miserable, harassed, driven Jewish DPs from Europe who, in their fear and need, were used as pawns to grab the land and property of the dispossessed Arabs. They were steered and pushed into this position by those who knew what they were doing - Zionist arms like the Jewish Agency, Zionist authorities in the armed forces and government, both by design and by toleration.
    Zionism - the ideology of Jewish chauvinism - showed that it was and is one of the deeply reactionary conceptions of the political world. The child of anti-Semitism, it became the father of another form of ethnic oppression; if genocide means the murder of a people as such, then there should be a word for the robbery of a people as such.
    What Zionism created in Palestine in 1948 was the first act of a tragedy.
  8. Karl Marx: Selected Writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1956   Published: 1961
    A selection of Marx's writings intended to present the evolution of his ideas, the main features of his mothod, and the chief conclusions of his research.
  9. Kropokin on Mutual Aid - Review
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1956
  10. Liberation (magazine)
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1956   Published: 1977
    A monthly left-wing magazine published in the U.S. from 1956-1977, founded by Dave Dellinger and A.J. Muste.
  11. Marx and Freud
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1956
    Marcuse's book renews the endeavor to read Marx into Freud. Marcuse wants to resurrect the 'explosive' revolutionary content of Freud's theories.
  12. A User's Guide to Détournement
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1956
    Détournement means deflection, diversion, rerouting, distortion, misuse, misappropriation, hijacking, or otherwise turning something aside from its normal course or purpose.
  13. The Weapon of Theory
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1956
    Address delivered to the first Tricontinental Conference of the Peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America held in Havana in January, 1966.

1955

  1. Adventures of the Dialectic
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1973
  2. Eros and Civilization
    A Philosophical Inquiry Into Freud

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1962
  3. The Freedom Charter
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1955
    Adopted at the Kliptown Congress of the African National Congress.
  4. Heretics and Renegades
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1969
    Essasy on the Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc.
  5. Illuminations
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1969
    Litearcy essasy, general reflections, and probings into cultural phenomena.
  6. James P. Cannon on the Legacy of the IWW
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1955   Published: 2015
    Inactive/Defunct Periodical
    Formed in direct opposition to the craft unionism of the American Federation of Labor, the IWW drew its membership largely from young workers who took to the road to find work where they could -- as railroad construction workers, lumberjacks, metal miners and seamen. Taught by harsh experience that the bosses could not be overpowered at the ballot box, those who formed the IWW called for "One Big Union" that would serve as the instrument to seize the means of production from the capitalist class.
  7. Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1955
    A successful year-long protest against the segregation of buses in Montgomery, Alabama.
  8. The Myth of Sisyphus
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1975
    Camus asks whether life has meaning, and whether suicide is a legimitate response to the absurdity of life. He says: "Although The Myth of Sisyphus poses mortal problems, it sums itself up for me as a lucid invitation to live and to create, in the very midst of the desert."
  9. On the Content of Socialism: Part 1
    From the Critique of Bureaucracy to the Idea of the Proletariat's Autonomy

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1955
  10. On the Content of Socialism: Part 2
    From the Critique of Bureaucracy to the Idea of the Proletariat's Autonomy

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1957
    The development of modern society and what has happened to the working-class movement over the last 100 years (and in particular since 1917) have compelled us to make a radical revision of the ideas on which that movement has been based.
  11. On the Content of Socialism: Part 3
    From the Critique of Bureaucracy to the Idea of the Proletariat's Autonomy

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1958
    We have tried to show that socialism is nothing other than people's conscious self-organization of their own lives in all domains; that it signifies, therefore, the management of production by the producers themselves on the scale of the workplace as well as on that of the economy as a whole; that it implies the abolition of every ruling apparatus separated from society; that it has to bring about a profound modification of technology and of the very meaning of work as people's primordial activity and, conjointly, an overthrow of all the values toward which capitalist society implicitly or explicitly is oriented.
  12. Russell-Einstein Manifesto
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1955
    We have to learn to think in a new way. We have to learn to ask ourselves, not what steps can be taken to give military victory to whatever group we prefer, for there no longer are such steps; the question we have to ask ourselves is: what steps can be taken to prevent a military contest of which the issue must be disastrous to all parties?
  13. The Sane Society
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1955
    A critical evaluation of the effects of contemporary Western culture on the mental health and sanity of the people living within it.
  14. Thinkers and Treasurers
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1960
  15. William Morris
    From Romantic to Revolutionary

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1955   Published: 1977
    A biography of the nineteenth-century socialist, designer, artist, and intellectual William Morris.

1954

  1. How to Lie With Statistics
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1954
    Illustrates how statistics are misused and misunderstood.
  2. The Interregnum 1923-1924
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1954   Published: 1969
    Tje fourth volume of E.H. Carr's History of Soviet Russia, covering the months of Lenin's illness and death
  3. The Myth of Lenin's 'Revolutionary Defeatism'
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1954
    Lenin discovered in practice that the defeat-slogan was incompatible with a living Marxist approach to the problem of the defense of the nation, conceived not in the social-patriotic sense of the 'defense of the fatherland' but in the light of a Marxist class understanding of, and a dynamically revolutionary program for, the nation.
  4. The Prophet Armed 
    Trotsky: 1879-1921, Volume 1

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1954   Published: 1965
    Volume 1 of Deutscher's three-volume biography of Leon Trotsky, covering the period to 1921.
  5. A Woman in Berlin
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1954   Published: 2005
    The anonymous author describes the degradation of Berlin women at the hands of Russian troops at the end of the Second World War.

1953

  1. The Bolshevik Revolution 1917 - 1923 - Voume Three
    Volume 3

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1953   Published: 1971
  2. Democracy in Alberta
    Social Credit and the Party System

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1953
    An examination of the development of the party system in Alberta.
  3. I.F. Stone's Weekly
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1953   Published: 1971
    Weekly newsletter published by I.F. Stone from 1953 to 1971. All issues between January 17, 1953 and December 1, 1971 are online.
  4. Lenin's Moscow
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1953   Published: 1971
    Rosmer traces the furtunes of the Russian Revolution and the Communist International from 1920 to 1924.
  5. Lessons of the Spanish Revolution 1936 - 1939 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1953   Published: 1972
  6. Letter to Socialisme ou Barbarie
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1953
    Councils are not only the means by which workers will exercise power after the taking of social power by the workers; we consider them as also being the organisms by means of which the workers will conquer this power.
  7. On Workers' Culture
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1953
    From the stories that we get every day from the shops, we can see a new form of struggle emerging. It never seems to be carried to its complete end, yet its existence is continuous. The real essence of this struggle and its ultimate goal is: a better life, a new society, the emergence of the individual as a human being.
  8. The Second Sex 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1953   Published: 1970
    simone de Beauvoir explores what is is to be a woman from a multitude of perspectives: sexual, social, biological, historical.

1952

  1. The American Socialist Movement: 1897-1912
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1952
    A history of the American Socialist Party, which at its height had over 150,000 dues-paying members, published hundreds of newspapers, and won almost a million votes for its presidential candidate.
  2. The Bolshevik Revolution 1917 - 1923 - Volume Two
    A history of Soviet Russia

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1952   Published: 1966
  3. Paris and London in the 18th Century
    Studies in Popular Protest

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1952   Published: 1970
    Articles relating to popular protests and revolts breaking out in Paris and London during the eighteenth century.
  4. The Politics Of Gorter
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1952
    In the years after 1920, Gorter in contact with the small groups of the extreme left, worked to clarify the idea of the organisation of workers councils and thus collaborated in the future renewal of the class struggle of the proletariat. During this time the socialist politicians of the second international, as members of parliament and ministers, were occupied in bailing out a bankrupt capitalism for the bourgeoisie.
  5. Punching Out
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1952   Published: 1973
  6. Put Work in Its Place
    The Complete Gude to the Flexible Work Place

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1952   Published: 1988
  7. The Tragedy of American Diplomacy
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1952   Published: 1962

1951

  1. Client-Centered Therapy
    Its current practice, implications and theory

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1951   Published: 1965
    A presentation of nondirective and related points of view in counselling and therapy.
  2. Gestalt Therapy
    Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1951
    The authors believe that the Gestalt outlook is the original, undistorted, natural approach to life, to thinking, acting and feeling.
  3. Selections from the Prison Notebooks 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1951   Published: 1973
    Gramsci's Notebooks cover a wide range of subjects including history, culture, politics, and philosophy.
  4. Stalin's Frame-Up System and the Moscow Trials (Review)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1951
    Trotsky's own indignation over the Moscow Trials, although understandable since they were directed against his followers and fellow-oppositionists, was nevertheless inconsistent with his own political outlook and conception of dictatorship. The terroristic system he came to bewail was after all originally headed by Lenin and Trotsky, and was proudly defended by the latter in his book Terrorism and Communism.
  5. Utopian Essays and Practical Proposals 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1951   Published: 1962
    Whatever the subject, Goodman asks: What blocks and limits human freedom, joy, and creativity? What tends to release, free, liberate? In criticizing society and life his purpose is to improve. Goodman is animated by a vision of a good society, a coherent community, a style, and quality, of life that is fully human, and humanizes.

1950

  1. Agrarian Socialism
    The Cooperative Commonwealth in Saskatchewan: A Study in Political Sociology

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1968
    A study of the social background of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan, which in 1944 became to first government with avowed socialist goals to be elected to office in Canada. The updated 1968 edition contains a new introduction and additional essays by five other scholars.
  2. The Authoritarian Personality
    Studies in prejudice

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1967
  3. The Bolshevik Revolution 1917 - 1923 - Volume One
    A History of Soviet Russia

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1969
    The first volume of E.H. Carr's eight-volume history of Soviet Russia,, containing an analysis of those events and controversies in Bolshevik history between 1898 and 1917 which influenced the nature and course of the Revolution itself.
  4. The Case of Comrade Tulayev
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1963
  5. Decline of the English Murder
    And Other Essays

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1981
    A collection of essays by George Orwell.
  6. Empire and Communications
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1972
    Innis develops his theory that the history of empires is determined to a large extent by their means of communication.
  7. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950
    A biography.
  8. Notes on Left Propaganda and How to Spread the Word
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1967
  9. Principles of Nuremberg
    Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1950
  10. Psychoanalysis and Religion
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1967
    Fromm challenges the argument that religion and psychoanalysis are necessarily in conflict. He argues that both should be concerned with the search for higher spiritual goals and their attainmentment within society.
  11. State Capitalism and World Revolution
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1986
    The great organisations of the masses of the people and of workers in the past were not worked out by any theoretical elite or vanguard. They arose from the experience of millions of people and their need to overcome the intolerable pressures which society had imposed upon them for generations.
  12. Studies in Revolution
    The Ideological Origins of the European Revolutionary Movement

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1964
  13. Unpopular Essays
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950   Published: 1969
    A collection of essays that argues against dogmatic beliefs in politics, philosophy and other related topics.

1949

  1. Ancestors of the Proletariat
    Tercentenary of the English Revolution: 1649-1949

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1949
    After Charles I had been executed, the Levellers aimed directly at the overthrow of the military government of Cromwell in the name of the people. The great political act of the abolition of the monarchy, dramatized in the execution of the King, was in their eyes entirely subordinate to the positive reorganization of society.
  2. China Shakes the World
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1949   Published: 1973
    Jack Belden's classic account of the Chinese civil war.
  3. Cromwell and the Levellers
    Tercentenary of English Revolution: 1649-1949

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1949
    Levelers were a loose organisation of kindred political thinkers who from stage to stage expressed the rapidly developing political consciousness of a great social and political mass movement.
  4. Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1949
    Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Adopted on 12 August 1949 by the Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War, Held in Geneva from 21 April to 12 August, 1949. Entry into force 21 October 1950.
  5. Nineteen Eighty-Four 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1949
    George Orwell's classic dystopian novel.
  6. Spontaneity and Organisation 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1949
    How revolutionaries have viewed the relationship between organized planned action and spontaneous action.
  7. Stalin and German Communism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1949
  8. Why Socialism?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1949

1948

  1. Canada: The Communist Viewpoint
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1948
    Tim Buck, the national leader of the Labor-Progressive Party, sets out the Communist position on the big questions of Canada's destiny.
  2. The Contradiction of Trotsky
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1948
    It was worth examining carefully Trotsky's attitude at the dawn of Stalinism, for it enables us to elucidate the (theoretical) policy to which he adhered until his death. I have said that Trotsky represented, between 1923 and 1927, the contradictions of Bolshevism. I should now add that he never emerged from this divided situation. Subsequently he transported into the domain of revolutionary theory the contradiction in which he had become objectively enclosed. Of course, he was forced by events to perceive the counter-revolutionary character of Stalinism, but he was not capable of taking an overall view of the new Stalinist society and of defining it.
  3. How to Defend Israel
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1948
    Out of the night of national hatred in Palestine, from the ranks of the working class there, there can arise a real Zion, a Middle East in which Jew and Arab build together a workers, a world without exploitation and oppression.
  4. The Nature of Stalinist Russia
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1948
    There is an unbridgeable antagonism between the definition of Russia as a degenerated workers' state and fundamental elements of Marxism, such as, to take one example, the self-mobilisation and self-conscious action of the masses as a necessary element for the socialist revolution.
  5. New Palestine Party Visit of Menachem Begin and Aims of Political Movement Discussed
    Letter to the New York Times

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1948
  6. Notes on Dialectics (Hegel, Marx, Lenin)
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1948   Published: 1980
    James believes that an understanding of Hegel's Logic is essential to an understanding of Marxism.
  7. Obsessions of Berlin
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1948
    The Russians are Berlin's second great obsession. The rape of the city is burned deep into the minds of its inhabitants because it is associated with their greatest disappointment. Long before the fall of the city, refugees from the East told horrible stories about the Russians' behavior. So did the radio. But wishful thinking discounted these stories as exaggerations and propaganda. At any rate, it could not get worse than it was. The same hope that welcomed Hitler in exchange for the depression welcomed now the Russians in exchange for the bombings.
  8. The People's Song Book
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1948   Published: 1956
    Songs of protest and affirmation. Foreword by Alan Lomax; preface by B.A. Botkin.
  9. The Revolutionary Answer to the Negro Problem in the USA
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1948
    The impetus of the Negro movement toward the revolutionary forces, which we have traced in the past, is stronger today than ever before.
  10. State Capitalism in Russia
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1948   Published: 1974
  11. Strikes
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1948
    State power acquires now an important function in organizing business life. In the devastated Europe it takes the supreme lead; its officials become the directors of a planned economy, regulating production and consumption. Its special function is to keep the workers down, and stifle all discontent by physical or spiritual means. In America, where it is subjected to big business, this is its chief function. The workers have now over against them the united front of State power and capitalist class, which usually is joined by union leaders and party leaders, who aspire to sit in conference with the managers and bosses and having a vote in fixing wages and working conditions. And, by this capitalist mechanism of increasing prices, the standard of life of the workers goes rapidly downward.

1947

  1. American Folksong Woody Guthrie
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1961
  2. The American Worker
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1972
    A description and analysis of the lives of American factory workrers after the Second World War, written by a young autoworker.
  3. Anti-Bolshevist Communism in Germany 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
    Until the final collapse of the German labor movement, the retreat of the 'ultra-left' appeared to be a return to theoretical work. The organizations existed in the form of weekly and monthly publications, pamphlets and books. The publications secured the organizations, the organizations the publications. While mass-organizations served small capitalistic minorities, the mass of the workers were represented by individuals. The contradiction between the theories of the 'ultra-left' and the prevailing conditions became unbearable. The more one thought in collective terms the more isolated one became.
  4. Bolshevism and Stalinism 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
    From any view that goes beyond the capitalist system of exploitation, Stalinism and Trotskyism are both relics of the past.
  5. Colonists in Bondage 
    White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 2012
    This is the story of the colonists of the kitchens, the stables, the fields, the shops, and those who came to America as indentured servants, men and women who sold themselves to masters for a period of time in order to pay passage from an old world to a new and freer one.
  6. The Communist Threat to Canada
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1973
    A 1973 reprint of a sensationalist pamphlet published by the Canadian Chamber of Commerce in 1947.
  7. Communitas 
    Means of Livelihood and Ways of Life

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1960
    Visions of urban life.
  8. Communitas
    Resource Type: Website
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1960
    Anarchist site with news and information for people who are questioning the system which hates them. In English, French, German and Catalan.
  9. Dialectic and History
    An Introduction

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947
    A pamphlet extracted from James' essay Dialcetical Materialism and the Fate of Humanity, originally published in 1947.
  10. Dialectical Materialism and the Fate of Humanity
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
    There is no philosophy of history without Marxism, and there can be no Marxism without the dialectic.
  11. From the Ground Up
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1956
  12. The 'Inevitability of Socialism'
    The Meaning of a Much Abused Formula

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
    It is our conviction that the socialist revolution will triumph. There is no question of 'equal possibility.' But this conviction is based on an examination of evidence - in the first place, upon our Marxist analysis of the social forces at work, the truth of which, like all human truth, is tested and confirmed only in practice (in struggle). It is not the same as saying that the socialist revolution is inevitable.
  13. The Invading Socialist Society
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947
    History has shown that in moments of great social crisis, its farthest flights fall short of the reality of the proletarian revolution. Never was the proletariat so ready for the revolutionary struggle, never was the need for it so great, never was it more certain that the proletarian upheaval, however long delayed, will only the more certainly take humanity forward in the greatest leap forward it has hitherto made. The periods of retreat, of quiescence, of inevitable defeats are mere episodes in the face of the absolute nature of the crisis.
  14. The Jewish Problem After Hitler
    Palestine and the Fourth International

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
  15. Kafka's Prayer
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1976
    Kafka said that writing is a form of prayer and it is in that light that Paul Goodman confronts the body of Kafka's work and ideas.
  16. On the Irresponsible Handling of the Palestine Question
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
    The American and English working class must not support the Zionist drive for a Jewish State (or what, under existing conditions means the same thing, a drive for Jewish immigration and colonisation) which, while befitting imperialism, opposes the most elementary interests equally of the Arab masses as of the Jewish.
  17. Public Ownership and Common Ownership 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
    Under public ownership the workers are not masters of their work; they may be better treated and their wages may be higher than under private ownership; but they are still exploited.
  18. Religion
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
  19. Strata in the Working Class
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
    Many of the lowest union officials have been separated from the ranks to some extent and try to keep their jobs to keep the protection and favors which the job gives them. The lowest layers of the union leadership also develop a legitimate organizational loyalty to their union. They are the conscious union propagandists. But while this is a necessity in the building and maintenance of any organization, in times of crisis this loyalty can temporarily retard good union militants from striking out on a new road.
  20. Studies in the Development of Capitalism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1968
    A Marxist interpretation of economic development in the period of modern capitalism. Starting with the decline of serfdom, the book deals with the beginnings of the bourgeoisie in the rising urban communities of Europe, with the growth of industrial investment, and with monopoloy in its various forms as a crucial instrument in the growth of capitalism.
  21. Theses On The Fight Of The Working Class Against Capitalism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1947
    Extension of the strike to ever larger masses, the only tactics appropriate to wrench concessions from capital, is fundamentally opposed to the Trade Union tactics to restrict the fight and to put an end to it as soon as possible. Such wild strikes in the present times are the only real class fights of the workers against capital. Here they assert their freedom, themselves choosing and directing their actions, not directed by other powers for other interests.
  22. Trotskyism in the United States 1940-47 Balance Sheet
    The Workers Party and the Johnson-Forest Tendency

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947
    The Johnson-Forest tendency presented this balance sheet of Trotskyism in the United States for its co-thinkers at home and abroad who shared the program and principles of the Fourth International.
  23. The Unknown Revolution 1917-1921
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947   Published: 1974
  24. Verboten und Verbrannt
    Deutsche Literatur - 12 Jahre unterdrükt

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1947
    Some of the German writers banned by the Nazis and detailed descriptions of their work.

1946

  1. After Ten Years
    On Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
  2. Anti-Semite and Jew
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1946   Published: 1965
  3. Ballad of Sacco and Vanzetti
    Resource Type: Audio
    First Published: 1946   Published: 1996
    An album of songs written and recorded by Woody Guthrie about the notorious case of Sacco and Vanzetti, two Italian immigrants and anarchists in the 1920s who were charged and eventually executed after a highly dubious trial for their supposed involvement in a robbery.
  4. Briefe aus dem Gefangnis
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1946
  5. Drawing the Line
    A pamphlet

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1946   Published: 1962
  6. Epilogue to Underground to Palestine
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946   Published: 1978
    The epilogue to I.F. Stone's first-hand account of the movement of European Jews to Palestine in 1946.
  7. The Failure of the Working Class
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    Capitalism cannot be annihilated by a change in the commanding persons; but only by the abolition of commanding. The real freedom of the workers consists in their direct mastery over the means of production. The essence of the future free world community is not that the working masses get enough food, but they direct their work themselves, collectively.
  8. Historical Retrogression or Socialist Revolution
    A Discussion Article on the Thesis of the IKD

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    Capitalism fetters, i.e., hampers, impedes the development of the productive forces. But it does not bring them to a halt. They move forward by advance, retardation, standstill, but they move forward, bringing the proletariat with them. The theoretical analysis is that the more capitalism increases the productive forces, the more it brings them into conflict with the existing social relations. The more it increases and develops the productive forces the more it socializes labor and the more it degrades it and the more it drives it to revolt.
  9. The Jewish Question
    A Marxist Interpretation

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1946   Published: 1970
    Abram Leon offers a materialist approach to the study of Jewish history.
  10. Jewish Question Since World War II
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946   Published: 1947
  11. Luxemburg's Theory of Accumulation
    How it Differed with Marx and Lenin

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    Dunayevskaya argues that Luxemburg was on the wrong track in her attempt to revise the conclusions of Marx's Capital.
  12. Middle East at the Crossroads
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    The events of the last few weeks (1945) in the Middle East have drawn the attention of the whole world to what is happening in this region. The terroristic acts of Zionist military organizations, the strikes and demonstrations of the Arab masses in Cairo, Alexandria, Damascus, Beirut and Baghdad against Zionism, and the concentration of British troops in Palestine has aroused numerous questions whose answer will demand an uncovering of the socio-economic roots of the tangle in which this part of the world is involved.
  13. Neither Victims nor Executioners
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1946
    A new edition of this 1946 classic points the way toward a new ethic of responsibility in coping with the twin threads of contemporary warfare and our moral culpability in political violence.
  14. A New British Provocation in Palestine
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    British imperialism, for years on end, has attempted to direct the ire of the Arab masses against the Jewish population of the country. For this purpose the policy of Zionist expansion has been supported, a policy which results in the eviction of Arab tenants from the land, drives Arab workers from jobs, and strengthens the Zionist fortress which is determined to establish a Jewish State in Palestine. Imperialist support for Zionism is calculated to achieve two results: One, to establish a power which directly supports it, which will constitute a faithful ally against the Arabs in every instance of an anti-imperialist uprising of the Arabs of the Middle East; the other, to have Zionism serve as a means of diverting the ire of the oppressed Arab masses away from imperialism onto a side issue - clashes with Jews.
  15. A Non-Dogmatic Approach to Marxism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    As against that altogether dogmatic approach which had already sterilized the revolutionary Marxist theory in all but a few phases of its century-long development in Europe, and by which the attempted extension of Marxism to the US has been blighted from the very beginning, it is here proposed to revindicate the critical, pragmatic, and activistic element which for all this has never been entirely eliminated from the social theory of Marx and which during the few short phases of its predominance has made that theory a most efficient weapon of the proletarian class struggle.
  16. Palestine Strike
    Arabs and Jews Unite

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    The biggest strikes in the history of Palestine far surpassing any other which have taken place, broke out last month (April 1946). 32,000 workers came out, of which 26,000 were Arabs and 6,000 Jews.
  17. Politics and the English Language
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defense of the indefensible. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism., question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness.
  18. The Program of the Minority
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    Statement of the minority in the (U.S.) Workers Party.
  19. Reveille for Radicals 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1946   Published: 1969
    Alinksy connects his theoretical notions on radicalism to practical movements and events.
  20. Serfdom in a Free Society
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
  21. Terrorism in Palestine
    Are the Terrorists Anti-Imperialist?

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    Terrorist activity in Palestine has been revived on a larger scale than formerly, calling the attention of the entire press to the organisations of the Hagana, the Irgun Zvai Leumi, the Stern Gang and their activities. Socialist internationalists must answer the question: what is the character of these organisations? Are they an anti-imperialist factor in the liberatory struggles of the colonial peoples?
  22. They Showed the Way to Labor Emancipation
    On Karl Marx and the 75th Anniversary of the Paris Commune

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    Marx drew a great theoretical conclusions from the experience of the Commune. He showed that the capitalist army, the capitalist state, the capitalist bureaucracy, cannot be seized by the revolutionary proletariat and used for its own purposes. It had to be smashed completely and a new state organized, based upon the organization of the working class.
  23. Underground to Palestine 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1946   Published: 1978
    Underground to Palestine was written in the spring of 1946 when Stone was the first newspaper reporter to accompany survivors of the Holocaust on their epic clendestine journey to Palestine.

1945

  1. Animal Farm
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1945
    George Orwell's satire on the decline of the Russian Revolution and its transformation into Stalinism.
  2. Civil Liberties in the Fight Against Fascism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1945
    Fighting against an evil, like anti-Semitism or racial hatred, does not mean calling on the state to suppress the evil.
  3. Fascism and Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1945
    Fascism is not a product that is specifically Italian or specifically German. It is the specific product only of decaying capitalism, of the crisis of the capitalist system which has become a permanent one. It has a double origin in the determination of big business to revive the profit mechanism by exceptional measures and in the revolt of the pauperized and despairing middle classes.
  4. The Ghetto Fights
    The Warsaw Ghetto: The 45th Anniversary of the Uprising

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1945   Published: 1989
    On May 10th, 1943, the first period of our bloody history, the history of the Warsaw Jews, came to an end. The site where the buildings of the ghetto had once stood became a ragged heap of rubble reaching three storeys high. Those who were killed in action had done their duty to the end, to the last drop of blood that soaked into the pavements of the Warsaw ghetto. We, who did not perish, leave it up to you to keep the memory of them alive--forever.
  5. In a time of duplicity
    From the Diary of Victor Serge - III

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1945
    A selection of three enteries in the diary of Victor Serge - III
  6. The Lesson of Germany
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1945
    Hitler's hundreds of thousands of storm troopers represented an enormous expense. They were thugs hired by the German bourgeoisie to fight its battles against the working class. In the years 1930-33 the German bureaucracy engineered election after election hoping to discredit parliamentary government and open the way for authoritarian rule. Despite his immense influence over the petty bourgeoisie, Hitler, by 1932, was on the wane. The German bourgeoisie deliberately maintained Nazism to have some power in reserve against Bolshevism. True, he dominated them afterward. We do not mean for one moment to deny the energy, the inventiveness, the will, the tenacity of Hitler and the other Nazi leaders. We do not deny their skilful use of social contradictions. He himself was obviously a born leader of men and an orator the like of whom Europe has not often seen. But from the time he began, the German bourgeoisie, the military caste, the bureaucracy, all built him up and without their active conscious support he would have been nothing.

1944

  1. Capitalism and Slavery
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1944
    Slavery helped finance the Industrial Revolution in England. Plantation owners, shipbuilders, and merchants connected with the slave trade accumulated vast fortunes that established banks and heavy industry in Europe and expanded the reach of capitalism worldwide.
  2. Dialectic of Enlightenment
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1944   Published: 1969
    A study of modern culture by two members of the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt (The Frankfurt School).
  3. Germany and European Civilization
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1944
    From at least the time of the publication of Capital to the present day, all political and social thought, particularly in Europe, have revolved around the ideas of Marxism. And these ideas were nourished, developed, propagated and defended above all by the German proletariat. Not only the revolutionary movement but modern thought owes the German workers a debt which it can never repay. So far has Marxism penetrated into the thought of the time that today the ideas of hundreds of thousands of intellectuals, who consider themselves anti-Marxists, have validity only to the extent that they have borrowed or unconsciously assimilated the very ideas which they oppose.
  4. The Great Transformation 
    The political and economic origins of our time

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1944   Published: 1968
    Polanyi analyzes the social and political upheavals that took place in England during the rise of the market economy. Polanyi contends that the modern market economy and the modern nation-state should be understood not as discrete elements, but as a single human invention he calls the "Market Society".
  5. The History of American Trotskyism
    From Its Origins (1928) to the Founding of the Socialists Workers Party (1938): Report of a Participant

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1944   Published: 1972
    Trotskyist leader Cannon recounts the early history of the Trotskyist movement in the United States.
  6. Individual and Social Origins of Neurosis
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1944
    The history of science is a history of erroneous statements. Yet these erroneous statements which mark the progress of thought have a particular quality: they are productive. And they are not just errors either; they are statements, the truth of which is veiled by misconceptions, is clothed in erroneous and inadequate concepts. They are rational visions which contain the seed of truth.
  7. A New International
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1944
    The idea of socialism is henceforth inseparable from respect for the individual, the spirit of liberty, and of really democratic institutions. Socialist ideology demands strict self-criticism, a re-exami-nation of theories, whilst allowing for the scientific learning of the last 50 years and of historic experience. "Marxism is a method and not a dogma."

1943

  1. Bound for Glory
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1943   Published: 1970
    The autobiography of folk singer Woody Guthrie.
  2. The French Anarchists
    From Chapter 1 of Memoirs of a Revolutionary

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1943   Published: 1967
    Of this hard childhood, this troubled adolescence, all those terrible years, I regret nothing as far as I am myself concerned. I am sorry for those who grow up in this world without ever experiencing the cruel side of it, without knowing utter frustration and the necessity of fighting, however blindly, for mankind. Any regret I have is only for the energies wasted in struggles which were bound to be fruitless. These struggles have taught me that, in any man, the best and the worst live side by side, and sometimes mingle - and that what is worst comes through the corruption of what is best.
  3. Memoirs of a Revolutionary 1901- 1941 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1943   Published: 1967
    Victor Serge, who was bron in 1890 and died in 1947, was an anarchist, a Bolshevik, a Trotskyist, and a revisionist-Marxist. Belgian by birth and upbringing, French by adoption and in literary expression, Russian by parentage and later by citizenship, he eventually became stateless and was put down as a Spanish national for purposes of his funeral documents. He was a journalist, a poet, a pamphleteer, a historian, a political prisoner, an agitator, and a novelist.
  4. Negroes in the Civil War
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1943
    The struggle of the Negro masses derives its peculiar intensity from the simple fact that what they are struggling for is not abstract but is always perfectly visible around them. In their instinctive revolutionary efforts for freedom, the escaping slaves had helped powerfully to begin and now those who remained behind had helped powerfully to conclude, the self-destructive course of the slave power.
  5. On Second Congress of Comintern
    From Chapter 3 of Memoirs of a Revolutionary

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1943   Published: 1967
    World capitalism, after its first suicidal war, was now clearly incapable either of organizing a positive peace, or (what was equally evident) of deploying its fantastic technical progress to increase the prosperity, liberty, safety, and dignity of mankind. The Revolution was therefore right, as against capitalism; and we saw that the spectre of future war would raise a question-mark over the existence of civilization itself, unless the social system of Europe was speedily transformed. The fearful Jacobinism of the Russian Revolution seemed to me to be quite unavoidable; as was the institution of a new revolutionary State, now in the process of disowning all its early promises. In this I saw an immense danger: the State seemed to me to be properly a weapon of war, not a means of organizing production. Over all our achievements there hung a death-sentence; since for all of us, for our ideals, for the new justice that was proclaimed, for our new collective economy, still in its infancy, defeat would have brought a peremptory death and after that, who knows what? I thought of the Revolution as a tremendous sacrifice that was required for the future's sake.
  6. On Third Congress of Comintern
    From Chapter 4 of Memoirs of a Revolutionary

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1943   Published: 1967
    I did not feel disheartened or disoriented. I was disgusted at certain things, psychologically exhausted by the Terror and tormented by the mass of wrongs that I could see growing, which I was powerless to counteract. My conclusions were that the Russian Revolution, left to itself, would probably, in one way or another, collapse (I did not see how: would it be through war or domestic reaction?); that the Russians, who had made superhuman efforts to build a new society, were more or less at the end of their strength; and that relief and salvation must come from the West. From now on it was necessary to work to build a Western working-class movement capable of supporting the Russians and, one day, superseding them.
  7. Why Strikes Fail
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1943
    Essentially a reprint of Tom Brown's 1943 essay, "The Social General Strike: Why 1926 Failed." Centres on workers' response to the British General Strike of 1926, and their repudiation of traditional representation in unions and formen.

1942

  1. Behemoth
    The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1942   Published: 1966
    A study of the structure of German Nazism.
  2. Character and Social Process
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1942
    The social character results from the dynamic adaptation of human nature to the structure of society. Changing social conditions result in changes of the social character, that is, in new needs and anxieties. These new needs give rise to new ideas and, as it were, make men susceptible to them; these new ideas in their turn tend to stabilise and intensify the new social character and to determine man's actions. In other words, social conditions influence ideological phenomena through the medium of character; character, on the other hand, is not the result of passive adaptation to social conditions but of a dynamic adaptation on the basis of elements that either are biologically inherent in human nature or have become inherent as the result of historic evolution.
  3. Materialism And Historical Materialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1942
    Marxism is not an inflexible doctrine or a sterile dogma. Society changes, the proletariat grows, science develops. New forms and phenomena arise in capitalism, in politics, in science, which Marx and Engels could not have foreseen or surmised. But the method of research which they formed remains to this day an excellent guide and tool towards the understanding and interpretation of new events.
  4. Pocket History of the British Working Class
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1942   Published: 1964
    A brief history of the British working class.
  5. The Theory of Capitalist Development
    Principles of Marxian Political Economy

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1942   Published: 1968

1941

  1. Answers to a Questionnaire on the War
    Published in Left, No. 62, November 1941.

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1941
  2. Escape from Freedom
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1941   Published: 1965
  3. Pannekoek's "The Party and the Working Class"
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1941
  4. Reason and Revolution
    Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1941   Published: 1968
  5. Stalin – An Appraisal of the Man and his Influence
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1941
    Trotsky's unfinished biography of Stalin.
  6. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a Capitalist Society
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1941
    To prove that the particular state-monopoly capitalism existing in Russia did not come about through state trustification but by methods of social revolution explains its historic origin but does not prove that its economic law of motion differs from that analyzed by Karl Marx, Engels and Lenin. It is high time to evaluate "the economic law of motion of modem society" as it applies to the Soviet Union and not merely to retain for statified property the same "superstitious reverence" the opportunists entertained for the bourgeois state.
  7. Workers' Councils 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1941   Published: 1947
    Now the goal becomes distinct; opposite to the stronger domination by state-directed planned economy of the new capitalism stands what Marx called the association of free and equal producers. So the call for unity must be supplemented by indication of the goal: take the factories and machines; assert your mastery over the productive apparatus; organize production by means of workers' councils.
  8. The Workers' Fight against Fascism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1941
    We do not propose to discuss the 'task' of the workers. The workers have already too long done other people's tasks, imposed on them under the high-sounding names of humanity, of human progress, of justice, and freedom, and what not. It is one of the redeeming features of a bad situation that some of the illusions, hitherto surviving among the working class from their past participation in the revolutionary fight of the bourgeoisie against feudal society, have finally been exploded. The only 'task' for the workers, as for every other class, is to look out for themselves.

1940

  1. Darkness at Noon
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1940   Published: 1968
  2. The English Revolution 1640
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1940
  3. Syndicalists in the Russian Revolution
    Direct Action Pamphlets No. 11

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1940
  4. To The Finland Station
    A Study in the Writing and Acting of History

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1940   Published: 1953
    The revolutionary tradition in Europe and the rise of socialism.
  5. Leon Trotsky
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1940
    Trotsky's works, and most of all his History of the Russian Revolution, will immortalize his name as a writer and politician. But there is a real need to oppose the development of the Trotsky legend which will make out of this leader of the Russian state capitalist revolution a martyr of the international working class - a legend which must be rejected together with all other postulates and aspects of bolshevism.
  6. Why Past Revolutionary Movements Have Failed 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1940
    The working class is going into this war burdened with the capitalistic tradition of Party leadership and the phantom tradition of a revolution of the Russian kind.

1939

  1. Class Politics in Palestine
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939
    Zionism is a factor that weakens the class struggle of the Jewish masses, and strengthens the reaction outside of Palestine as well as the reactionary forces in Palestine. Jewish immigration into Palestine, which is mainly an immigration of workers, strengthens, on the one side, the power and weight of the working class in the country, the power which, regarded historically, is the most extreme anti-imperialist factor and, cm the other hand, in so far as it is Zionist, it strengthens the exclusivist positions and the forces of imperialism in Palestine.
  2. Council Communism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939
    There is no dearth of proposals as to how to revive the labour movement; however, the serious investigator cannot help noticing that all such proposals for a 'new beginning' are in reality but the restatement and rediscovery of ideas and forms of activity developed with much greater clarity and consistency during the beginnings of the modern labour movement.
  3. Democracy in the British Army
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939
  4. Fascism and Big Busness
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1939   Published: 1973
    A history of the rise of fascism in Europe and the role of big business in supporting fascism.
  5. Karl Kautsky: From Marx to Hitler
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939
    What distinguished Kautsky from the general run of intellectuals who flocked to the labour movement as soon as it became more respectable and who were only too eager to foster the trend of class collaboration, was a greater love for theory, a love which refused to compare theory with actuality. Only as a theoretician could Kautsky remain a revolutionist; only too willingly he left the practical affairs of the movement to others. However, he fooled himself. In the role of a mere 'theoretician,' he ceased to be a revolutionary theoretician, or rather he could not become a revolutionist. As soon as the scene for a real battle between capitalism and socialism after the war had been laid, his theories collapsed because they had already been divorced in practice from the movement they were supposed to represent.
  6. Karl Marxs Capital
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1939
    Otto Rühle's abridged version of Volume One of Das Capital. First published undeer the title "Living Thoughts of Karl Marx".
  7. Kronstadt Again
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939
    Serge charges that, after the rebels had been disarmed, there was a general massacre of prisoners. And that such as were not shot down on the spot were executed in batches by the Cheka, after secret trials, for some weeks after the uprising had been completely crushed.
  8. Review of 'Karl Marx' by Karl Korsch
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939
    In conspicuous distinction to many other interpretations of Marx, this book concentrates upon the essentials of Marxian theory and practice.
  9. The Right of Self-Determination and the Negro in the United States of North Americas
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939
  10. Rosa Luxemburg 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1939   Published: 1972
    A biography of Rosa Luxemburg written by a German revolutionary who worked with Luxemburg in the Spartacist organization.
  11. Royal Moments in Broadcasting
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939   Published: 2007
  12. Slippery Slopes (the Anarchists in Spain)
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1939   Published: 2014
    Written in 1939 by a member of FORU (Regional Workers Federation of Uruguay), this book — a scathing indictment of the leaders of the Spanish CNT and FAI for their “betrayal” of anarchist principles — contains, in addition to official documents and proclamations of the CNT and FAI and articles from the Spanish and international anarchosyndicalist press.
  13. The Struggle Against Fascism Begins with the Struggle Against Bolshevism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1939
    Russia must be placed first among the new totalitarian states. It was the first to adopt the new state principle. It went furthest in its application. It was the first to establish a constitutional dictatorship, together with the political and administrative terror system which goes with it. Adopting all the features of the total state, it thus became the model for those other countries which were forced to do away with the democratic state system and to change to dictatorial rule. Russia was the example for fascism. There is an unbridgeable opposition between bolshevism and socialism. Nationalism, authoritarianism, centralism, leader dictatorship, power policies, terror-rule, mechanistic dynamics, inability to socialize-all these essential characteristics of fascism were and are existing in bolshevism.

1938

  1. The Black Jacobins 
    Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938   Published: 1963
    An account of the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1803.
  2. British Policy in Palestine
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    The three principal factors in the political arena in Palestine 1in 1938 are British imperialism, the Arab nationalist movement under its present leadership and the Zionist movement.
  3. Collectives in Spain
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938   Published: 1945
    A contemporary account of the Spanish Anarchist movements during the 1930's by Gaston Leval, a prominent anarcho-syndicalist. Attention focuses on the roles of "agrarian socialism" and education in the revolution.
  4. Excerpts from the 'Notebooks'
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938   Published: 1944
  5. Fascism and Big Business (excerpt)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    Events have demonstrated with tragic clearness that the moment the working class allows the fascist wave to sweep over it, a long period of slavery and impotence begins - a long period during which socialist, even democratic, ideas are not merely erased from the pediments of public monuments and libraries but, what is much more serious, are rooted out of human minds. Events have proved that fascism physically destroys everything opposing its dictatorship, no matter how mildly, and that it creates a vacuum around itself and leaves a vacuum behind it.
  6. General Remarks on the Question of Organisation
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    Organisation is the chief principle in the working class fight for emancipation. Hence the forms of this organisation constitute the most important problem in the practice of the working class movement. It is clear that these forms depend on the conditions of society and the aims of the fight. They cannot be the invention of theory, but have to be built up spontaneously by the working class itself, guided by its immediate necessities.
  7. A History of Pan-African Revolt
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938   Published: 2012
    Originally published in England in 1938 and expanded in 1969, this work isa classic account of global Black resistance. This concise, accessible history of revolts by African peoples worldwide explores the wide range of methods used by Africans to resist oppression and the negative effects of imperialism and colonization as viewed in the 20th century.
  8. Homage to Catalonia 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938
    George Orwell's account of his experiences in the Spanish Civil War.
  9. The Jewish-Arab Conflict
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    The conflict between the Arab masses and Zionist aspirations can only be solved to the extent that Jewish masses in Palestine renounce Zionist exclusivism.
  10. Karl Marx 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938
    It is the purpose of this book to restate the most important principles and contents of Marx's social science in the light of recent historical events and of the new theoretical needs which have arisen under the impact of those events. In so doing we shall deal throughout with the original ideas of Marx himself rather than with their subsequent developments brought about by the various 'orthodox' and 'revisionist, dogmatic and critical, radical and moderate schools of the Marxists on the one hand, and their more or less violent critics and opponents on the other hand.
  11. Kronstadt 1921: Trotsky's Defense. Response to Trotsky
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    It is in fact in the domain of repression that the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party committed, from the very beginning of the revolution, the gravest errors, those which were to most dangerously contribute to on one hand to the bureaucratization of the party and the state, and on the other to disarming the masses and, more particularly, the revolutionaries. It is about time that we realized this.
  12. The Kronstadt Commune
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938   Published: 1971
    A history of the Kronstadt Uprising 1921 which highlights one of the most important yet neglected events of the Russian Revolution. The suppression of the most revolutionary section of the Navy by the Bolsheviks was the final blow to any hope of a genuine revolution based on democratic workers' control. Mett dispels many of the contemporary mistruths put forward by Bolshevik propagandists and includes a number of original sources from the commune.
  13. Lenin as Philosopher
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938   Published: 1948
    Since the importance of Lenin's philosophy is so strongly emphasised in Leninist organizations, it is necessary to make it the subject of a serious critical study. The doctrine of Party-Communism of the Third International cannot be judged adequately unless their philosophical basis is thoroughly examined.
  14. Lenin as Philosopher
    Some additional remarks to Anton Pannekoek's recent criticism of Lenin's book Materialism and Empirio-Criticism

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    Both in his revolutionary materialist philosophy and m his revolutionary jacobinic politics, Lenin hid from himself the historical truth that his Russian revolution, in spite of a temporary attempt to break through its particular limitations in connection with the simultaneous revolutionary movement of the proletarian class in the West, was bound to remain in fact a belated successor of the great bourgeois revolutions of the past.
  15. The Masses & The Vanguard
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    The leadership principle, the idea of the vanguard that must assume responsibility for the proletarian revolution is based on the pre-war conception of the labour movement, is unsound. The tasks of the revolutionary and the communist reorganization of society cannot be realized without the widest and fullest action of the masses themselves.
  16. Obituary: Leon Sedov
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    In Leon Lvovich, Trotsky has lost more than a son of his own blood - he has lost a son in spirit, an irreplaceable companion in struggle.
  17. Once More: Kronstadt
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    I admire Trotsky and accept many of his theories. An article like this - essentially a piece of special pleading, however brilliant - makes it harder to defend Trotsky from the often-made accusation that his thinking is sectarian and inflexible.
  18. Once More: Kronstadt
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    The question which dominates today the whole discussion is, in substance, this: When and how did Bolshevism begin to degenerate?
  19. The Russian Enigma: Lenin, Also...
    Chapter 9 of Book 3 of The Russian Enigma, cut by the publisher of the original 1938 version

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938   Published: 1979
    Chapter 9 of Book 3 of Ante Ciliga's The Russian Enigma originally published as In The Land of The Great Lie. The book details Ciliga's time spent in Soviet Prisons and 'isolaters' following his arrest for belonging to the Trotskyist Opposition, and provides a wealth of important documentary information concerning the miserable conditions in which the working class were reduced to living in, the extent of the 'criminalisation' of large swathes of the population, and the various forms in which resistance appeared.
  20. Secrecy and Revolution
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
  21. Secrecy and Revolution
    A Reply to Trotsky

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938   Published: 1963
    Whether Trotsky wills it or not, no limit has been set to the analysis of the Russian revolution, which he has served so outstandingly, so tremendously - despite the measure of responsibility which must be laid to his name for certain tragic errors.
  22. The Transitional Program: The Death Agony of Capitalism and the Tasks of the Fourth International
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938
    Leon Trotsky's program for the founding of the Fourth International.
  23. Trotsky Protests Too Much
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938
    Leon Trotsky is outraged that people should have revived the Kronstadt 'episode' and ask questions about his part. It does not occur to him that those who have come to his defence against his detractor have a right to ask what methods he had employed when he was in power, and how he had dealt with those who did not subscribe to his dictum as gospel truth.
  24. Was the Bolshevik Revolution a Failure?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    As soon as the Bolsheviks recognized that the proletariat was too weak to establish state capitalistic systems favorable to Russia in other countries, and also that the bourgeoisie was no longer willing to risk anything in a struggle against state capitalist Russia, that is, about 1920, the Bolsheviks ceased to support revolutionary movements in other countries and instead prepared for a peaceful side by side existence with the other capitalistic systems.

1937

  1. Bread and Wine
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1937   Published: 2005
    One of the 20th century's essential novels depicting Fascism's rise in Italy. Set and written in Fascist Italy, this book exposes that regime's use of brute force for the body and lies for the mind. Through the story of the once-exiled Pietro Spina, Italy comes alive with priests and peasants, students and revolutionaries, all on the brink of war.
  2. Farewell to Andres Nin
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1937
    Farewell, my friend. Your great courageous life is left to us, full of work and action. Your terrible death is left to us as well. Like you, we must hold out to the bitter end so that socialism be free.
  3. From Lenin to Stalin 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1937   Published: 1973
    A fascinating, first-hand account of the Stalinist takeover in Russia.
  4. The Hero' of Kronstadt Writes History
    Review of The Revolution Betrayed

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1937
    It is only necessary to reflect on the paramount role which Trotsky played in the first thundering years of Bolshevik Russia to understand why he cannot admit that the Bolshevik revolution was only able to change the form of capitalism but was not able to do away with the capitalist form of exploitation. It is the shadow of that period that lies in the way of his understanding.
  5. Leading Principles of Marxism: A Restatement 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1937
    Marx's study of society is based upon a full recognition of the reality of historical change. Marx treats all conditions of existing bourgeois society as changing, ie more exactly, as conditions in the process of being changed by human actions. Bourgeois society is not, according to Marx, a general entity which can be replaced by another stage in a historical movement. It is both the result of an earlier phase and the starting point of a new phase, of the social class war which is leading to a social revolution.
  6. Michael Bakunin
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1937   Published: 1975
  7. The Nonsense of Planning
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1937
    The literature dealing with the problems of a planned economy has attained proportions comparable only with those of the depression which brought it forth. In all this welter of thought, we may distinguish three main currents: one which stands for the possibility of capitalist planning, another which denies it on principle, and a third which hovers between these extremes and finds its champions both in the bourgeois and socialist camps.
  8. The Political Situation and the Tasks of the Proletariat
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1937
    In the present, unequivocally revolutionary situation the slogan "fight for the parliamentary-democratic Republic" can serve no other interests than those of the bourgeois counter-revolution.
  9. Portraying the men and events of our times
    The Diary of Victor Serge #2

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1937   Published: 1950
  10. The Road to Wigan Pier
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1937
    George Orwell's investigation of an English working class community in the 1930s.
  11. Russia Twenty Years After
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1937   Published: 1996
    Serge's impassioned account based on his eyewitness observations of everyday life and the detailed realities of Stalinist political repression.
  12. Society and Mind in Marxian Philosophy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1937
  13. With the Peasants of Aragon
    Libertarian Communism in the Liberated Area of Spain

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1937   Published: 1984
    The story of how Aragón peasants collectivised the land and established libertarian communism beginning in 1936.
  14. World Revolution 1917-1936
    The Rise and Fall of the Communist International

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1937
    No major economic or political development in Russia, and few of the minor ones, can be understood, except in relation to the strength of the revolutionary movement in Western Europe, so long dominated by the Third International.

1936

  1. 'Civilising' the 'Blacks'; Why Britain needs to Maintain Her African Possessions
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    Africans must win their own freedom. Nobody will win it for them. They need co-operation, but that co-operation must be with the revolutionary movement in Europe and Asia. There is no other way out. Each movement will neglect the other at its peril.
  2. Fascism Shall Not Pass
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    On all fronts communists, anarchists, socialists and republicans are fighting shoulder to shoulder. We have also been joined by non-party people from town and country, because they too have realized what a victory for fascism would mean to Spain.
  3. The Inevitability of Communism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    A reaction to Sidney Hook's Towards the Understanding of Karl Marx.
  4. Man's Worldly Goods
    The Story of the Wealth of Nations

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1936   Published: 1968
    Huberman sets out to explain history using economic theory, and to explain economic theory using history. He tries to explain, in terms of the development of economic thought, why certain doctrines arose when they did, how they originated in the very fabric of social life, and how they were developed, modified, and overthrown when the pattern of that fabric was changed.
  5. The May Days in Barcelona
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    The struggle under way in Spain between revolution and counter-revolution is now entering a new phase, in which the proletariat, educated by the experience of these months of struggle and, above all, by the magnificent May Days, must direct all its forces towards strengthening its class independence, defending the conquests of the revolution and preparing for the taking of power, the indispensable premise for the institution of a socialist regime which will regenerate the country's economy and establish order.
  6. Notes on Russia
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
  7. Party and Class 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    The belief in parties is the main reason for the impotence of the working class; therefore we avoid forming a new party - not because we are too few, but because a party is an organization that aims to lead and control the working class. In opposition to this, we maintain that the working class can rise to victory only when it independently attacks its problems and decides its own fate.
  8. Party and Working Class
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    We are only at the very earliest stages of a new workers' movement. The old movement was embodied in parties, and today belief in the party constitutes the most powerful check on the working class' capacity for action. That is why we are not trying to create a new party.
  9. State Capitalism and Dictatorship
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    One can raise the question : is not state capitalism the only 'way out' for the bourgeoisie ? Obviously state capitalism would be feasible, if only the whole productive process could be managed and planned centrally from above in order to meet the needs of the population and eliminate crises. If such conditions were brought about, the bourgeoisie would then cease being a real bourgeoisie.
  10. The Third International After Lenin
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1936   Published: 1972
    Trotsky subject the theory of socialism in one country to a merciless criticism, labeling it an apologie fro the interests of the newly previleged strata in the Soviet Union.
  11. Trade Unionism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    The narrow field of trade union struggle widens into the broad field of class struggle. But now the workers themselves must change. They have to take a wider view of the world. From their trade, from their work within the factory walls, their mind must widen to encompass society as a whole. Their spirit must rise above the petty things around them. They have to face the state; they enter the realm of politics. The problems of revolution must be dealt with.
  12. The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    Even the most perfect reproduction of a work of art is lacking in one element: its presence in time and space, its unique existence at the place where it happens to be.
  13. Workers Councils (1936 article)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1936
    Fighting for freedom is not letting your leaders think for you and decide, and following obediently behind them, or from time to time scolding them. Fighting for freedom is partaking to the full of ones capacity, thinking and deciding for oneself, taking all the responsibilities as a self-relying individual amidst equal comrades. It is true that to think for oneself, to think out what is true and right, with a head dulled by fatigue, is the hardest, the most difficult task; it is much harder than to pay and to obey. But it is the only way to freedom. To be liberated by others, whose leadership is the essential part of the liberation, means the getting of new masters instead of the old ones.

1935

  1. Austro-Marxism and the National Question
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
    The mistake made by those who, starting from the fact that revolutionary Marxism upholds the right of all peoples to independence, argue that the practical consequence of that should be the creation of independent national parties or a federation of organisations with extensive political and administrative autonomy, cannot be sufficiently emphasised. Solidarity between workers of the diverse nations within the same State should be paramount. Class solidarity is better than national solidarity.
  2. Black Reconstruction 
    An essay toward a history of the part which black folk played in the attempt to reconstruct democracy in America, 1860-1880

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1935
    On the role of black Americans during reconstruction.
  3. Conversation with a Hairdresser's Assistant
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
    An english translation of Reich's article of the same name from 1935, which demonstrates how Marxist principles might be explained without the use of political terms.
  4. Herland
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1935
  5. The Lenin Legend
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
    For Lenin, socialism was in the last instance merely a kind of state-capitalism.
  6. Luxemburg versus Lenin 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
    On many essential points the conceptions of Luxemburg differ from those of Lenin as day from night, or -- the same thing -- as the problems of the bourgeois revolution from those of the proletarian.
  7. Otto Rühle and the German Labour Movement
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
  8. Some Lessons of the Toledo Strike
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
    There will be no unions worth the name unless the militants build and maintain them. Without fighting unions the workers will presently be made the object of an attack which will make 1929-35 seem like 'the good old times.'
  9. Why I am a Marxist 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
    For the Marxist, there is no such thing as 'Marxism' in general any more than there is a 'democracy' in general, a 'dictatorship' in general or a 'state' in general. There is only a bourgeois state, a proletarian dictatorship or a fascist dictatorship, etc. And even these exist only at determinate stages of historical development, with corresponding historical characteristics, mainly economic, but conditioned also in part by geographical, traditional, and other factors. With the deferent levels of historical development, with the different environments of geographical distribution, with the well-known differences of creed and tendency among the various Marxist schools, there exist, both nationally and internationally, very different theoretical systems and practical movements which go by the name of Marxism.

1934

  1. Century of Progress
    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1934
    WFPL documentary film that criticizes society's direction in the early decades of the 20th century.
  2. The Communist Party and socialists during the 1934 Toledo Auto-Lite strike
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1934   Published: 2014
    About radicals involvement in the 1934 Toledo Auto-Lite strike.
  3. The Great Depression
    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1934
    WFPL docudrama with a silent narrative of one man's struggle and despair in search of a job in Depression-era Chicago.
  4. Legitimacy Versus Industrialism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1934   Published: 1965
  5. On Revolutionary Organization: Points for Discussion
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1934
  6. The Paris Commune told in pictures
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1934
    An illustrated history of the Paris Commune of 1871.
  7. Sex-Pol 
    Essays 1929-1934

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1934   Published: 1972
    Wilhelm Reich's writings from his Marxist period, outlining his thoughts about sexual and political liberation.
  8. The theory of the collapse of capitalism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1934
    Struggle is never simple or convenient.
  9. The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1934   Published: 1938
    A study of the social catastrophe that convulsed China in 1925-27, when the working-class movement was murderously crushed by the Kuomintang.
  10. What is Class Consciousness?
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1934   Published: 1971
    Critical of what he saw as Marxism's overly materialistic explanations, Reich proposes the perspectives of psychology and psychotherapy could revitalise radical political thought and the socialist movement.
  11. The World in Review and America Today, 1934
    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1934   Published: 1982
    WFPL newsreel segments that exposed multiple social current event topics.

1933

  1. Character Analysis
    Third, Enlarged Edition

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1933   Published: 1976
    Reich's psychoanalytic investigations of the human character.
  2. Down and Out in Paris and London
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1933   Published: 1969
    Life near the bottom in France and England in the early 1930s.
  3. Humanist Manifesto I
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1933
    Outlines affirmations on cosmology, biological and cultural evolution, human nature, epistemology, ethics, religion, self-fulfillment, and the quest for freedom and social justice.
  4. The Mass Psychology of Fascism 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1933   Published: 1970
    Wilhelm Reich's class study, written during the years of the German crisis. Reich repudiates the concept that fascism is the ideology or action of a single individual or nationality, or any ethnic or political group. He understands fascism as the expression of the irrational character structure of human beings whose needs and impulses have been suppressed.
  5. The National Hunger March to Washington, 1932
    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1933   Published: 1982
    WFPL Documentary of the Second National Hunger March to Washington, D.C. 1932.

1932

  1. Bonus March, 1932
    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1932   Published: 1982
    WFPL footage of the 1932 Bonus Army demanding early redemption of their service certificates in Washington D.C. through protest.
  2. Ford Massacre
    Detroit Workers News Special, 1932

    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1932   Published: 1982
    WFPL newsreel of the March 7th Detroit/Dearborn demonstration and hunger march of unemployed Ford workers.
  3. In Praise of Idleness 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1932
    More leisure, not work, will benefit civilization. Modern organization and technology makes a four hour work day possible for leisure to be distributed to everyone.
  4. Introduction to Capital 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1932
    Marx's book on capital, like Plato's book on the state, like Machiavelli's Prince and Rousseau's Social Contract, owes its tremendous and enduring impact to the fact that it grasps and articulates, at a turning point of history, the full implications of the new force breaking in upon the old forms of life. All the economic, political, and social questions, upon which the analysis in Marx's Capital theoretically devolves, are today world-shaking practical issues, over which the real-life struggle between great social forces, between states and classes, rages in every corner of the earth.
  5. Lectures on Philosophy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1932   Published: 1933
  6. Trotsky's History of the Russian Revolution
    Volume One

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1932   Published: 1967
    A combination of dramatic narrative and searching analysis by one of the key figures in the Russian Revolution. Volume 1 cover the period up to the “July Days” – a semi-insurrection followed by attempted stamping out of Bolshevism in Petrograd.
  7. Trotsky's History of the Russian Revolution 
    Volume Two

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1932   Published: 1967
  8. Trotsky's History of the Russian Revolution 
    Volume Three

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1932   Published: 1967

1931

  1. Dynamite: the story of class violence in America
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1931
    Louis Adamic's history of class violence in the US. It traces the origins of gangsterism and racketeering in unions in the 1930s to its roots in workers needing to defend themselves from the armed violence of the state and bosses' thugs.
  2. Halsted Street
    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1931   Published: 2000
    WFPL Documentary portraying the various ethnic groups along Chicago’s Halsted Street.
  3. Men in Prison
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1931
    Victor Serge's novel based on his own experiences as a politcal prisoner.
  4. National Hunger March, 1931
    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1931
    WFPL footage of protesters marching to Washington demanding jobs, food, and clothing during the infancy of the Great Depression.
  5. The Permanent Revolution & Results and Prospects
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1931   Published: 1969
    A re-issue of two of Trotsky's works, Results and Prospcts, and The Permanent Revolution.
  6. The Sexual Struggle of Youth
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1931   Published: 1972
  7. Worker's Newsreel Unemployment Special, 1931
    Resource Type: Film
    First Published: 1931   Published: 1982
    WFPL footage of the first mass demonstration against unemployment and hunger in Union Square, New York City on March 6, 1930.

1930

  1. The Conquest of Happiness
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1930   Published: 1965
  2. Has Religion Made Useful Contributions to Civilization?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1930
    Bertrand Russell's 1930 critique of religious morality and metaphysics.
  3. My Life
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1930   Published: 1970
    Trotsky's autobiography, published in 1930.
  4. The Present State of the Problem of 'Marxism and Philosophy'
    An Anti-Critique

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1930
    A fundamental debate on the general state of modern Marxism has now begun, and there are many indications that despite secondary, transient or trivial conflicts, the real division on all major and decisive questions is between the old Marxist orthodoxy of Kautsky allied to the new Russian or 'Leninist' orthodoxy on the one side, and all critical and progressive theoretical tendencies in the proletarian movement today on the other side.
  5. The Sexual Revolution
    Toward a Self-Governing Character Structure

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1930   Published: 1967
    Wilhelm Reich summarizes the criticism of prevailing sexual conditions and conflicts as it resulted from his sex-economic researches. He analyzes the general basic traits of the conflicts in present-day sexual living, dealing particularly with the institution of marriage and the revolution in family life as well as with the problems of infantile and adolescent sexuality. He also presents a study of the sexual revolution that occurred briefly in Soviet Russia in the first few years of their economic revolution.
  6. Year One of the Russian Revolution
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1930   Published: 1972
    The purpose of Year One of the Russian Revolution is essentially one of reconstructing the chain of events, in the Russia of revolution and counter-revolution, which has led from the 'Commune-State' of 1917 to the party dictatorship of late 1918. The terms of the narrative are fixed by Serge's basic convictions, firstly, that the October Revolution of 1917 was a genuine expression of mass feeling by workers and peasants in their overwhelming majority, and secondly that the revolutionary wave had very quickly exhausted itself, or rather bled itself dry, through the military depredation and economic ruin which wrought havoc in an already enfeebled Russia during the early months following the Bolshevik seizure of power.

1929

  1. Dialectical Materialism & Psychoanalysis
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1929
  2. How The Gods Were Made
    A Study in Historical Materialism

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1929
  3. Sacco and Vanzetti
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1929
    This struggle marks the real history of progress. Its heroes are not the Napoleons and the Bismarcks, not the generals and politicians. Its path is lined with the unmarked graves of the Saccos and Vanzettis of humanity, dotted with the auto-da-fé, the torture chambers, the gallows and the electric chair. To those martyrs of justice and liberty we owe what little of real progress and civilization we have today.

1928

  1. Canton, December 1927
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1928
    In 1927, as a result of a rapid succession of fatal mistakes, the Chinese proletariat lost the strong positions in Shanghai and Hankou that it had gloriously conquered at the head of the national movement. In April Chiang Kai-shek’s coup, which was prepared in broad daylight and should have been foreseen, robbed the workers of Shanghai. In August the sharp turn to the right by the ‘left’ Guomindang, on which had been based inadmissible hopes, robbed the workers of Hankou. In the meantime, the seizure of Changsha, carried out with the complicity of the Hankow government (in which the Communists participated), decapitated the Hunan peasant movement.
  2. Essays on Marx's Theory of Value
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1928   Published: 1972
    A discussion of concepts at the root of Marxism: the theory of value and commodity fetishism.
  3. Karl Marx: His Life and Works
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1928   Published: 1943
    Therewith our appraisement of Marx's personality has likewise been profoundly modified. Whereas persons of the last generation, in view of the opposing nature of their interests, reflected in their ideology, looked upon Marx either as a criminal disturber of the peace and a devil, or else as a saint and as an infallible pope-those of our own generation can admit him to have been a man equipped both with human weaknesses and with human strengths, both with human vices and with human virtues. We are, indeed, compelled to regard him thus, unless we would refuse to apply the materialist interpretation of history to individuals as well as to general processes. Marx had to be an obstinate, pig-headed, intolerant thinker and investigator; had to regard other people's opinions with suspicion; had to be hostile towards every alien trend; had to be cantankerous, dictatorial, fanatically obsessed with the rightness of his own convictions, fiercely opposed to any deviations from, any falsifications of, his ideas. He had to concentrate his genius, his understanding, his creative energy, for decade after decade, upon this one point, upon this one scientific task; had to neglect his calling, his family, his livelihood, his friends.

1927

  1. Abstract Labour and Value in Marx's System
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1927   Published: 1978
    The lecture develops one of the main themes of Rubin's Essays on Marx's Theory of Value, thus providing a useful introduction to the latter work, while developing beyond it in important respects. The lecture aims to bring out more clearly than had the Essays the distinction between the social commensurability of labour that is characteristic of any society that is based on the division of labour, and the specific form in which this commensuration is achieved in capitalist society, the form of abstract labour.

1926

  1. The Autobiography of a Sexually Emancipated Communist Woman 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1926   Published: 1971
    This is the first time that the complete autobiography which Alexandra Kollontai has been published. Written in 1926 under the pressure of the gradually sharpening Stalinist control, readers must realise the extent and intensity of corrections in which Kollontai was forced to make.
  2. On Education
    Especially in Early Childhood

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1926   Published: 1960
  3. Platform
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1926
  4. Theory of Knowledge
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1926

1925

  1. The Autobiography of Mother Jones
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1925
    In spite of oppressors, in spite of false leaders, in spite of labor's own lack of understanding of its needs, the cause of the worker continues onward.
  2. Battleship Potemkin (film)
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 1925
    A 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein, which presents a dramatized version of the mutiny that occurred in 1905 when the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin rebelled against their officers of the Tsarist regime.
  3. Hamburg at the Barricades 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1925   Published: 1977
    Articles by the revolutionary journaliist Larissa Reissner, covering the Hamburg uprising of 1923 and the life and times for Germany in the years 1923-1925.
  4. My Disillusionment in Russia
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1925
    Anarchist Emma Goldman recounts her experiences in Russia during the early years of the Revolution, and her subsequent disillusionment with the Bolshevik regime.

1924

  1. The Accumulation of Capital An Anti-Critique and Imperialism and the Accumulation of Capital
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1924   Published: 1972
    Rosa Luxemburg's response to the criticisms of her book 'The Accumulation of Capital'. This volume also includes Nikolai Bukharin's reply to Luxemburg, 'Imperialism and the Accumulation of Capital'.
  2. Flame on the Snow
    (1920/1921)

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1924
  3. From the Bourgeois to the Proletarian Revolution 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1924   Published: 1974
    Parliaments are becoming increasingly empty trappings: the parties are collapsing, destroying one another, and losing their political credibility: the trade unions are changing into ruins. The breakdown of this organisational and political system all along the line is inevitable.
  4. Lenin in 1917
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1924   Published: 1925
  5. The Lessons of October
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1924
  6. Manifesto of Surrealism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1924
    Surrealism is the invisible ray which will one day enable us to win out over our opponents.
  7. The Marxism of the First International
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1924
    On 28 September 1864 it was decided at an international meeting of workers in London to found the International Workingmen's Association. On 25 July 1867, Karl Marx wrote the preface to the first edition of the first volume of Capital. Within one single period of history, in the 1860s, both aspects of Marxism attained their full realization: the new autonomous science of the working class attained its developed theoretical form in literature at the same time as the new autonomous movement of the proletariat achieved its practical form in history.

1923

  1. Anti-Imperialist Struggle in India
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1923
  2. Five Years’ Struggle
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1923
  3. History of the Makhnovist Movement 1918 - 1921
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1923   Published: 1974
  4. The Marxism of Rosa Luxemburg
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1923
    It is characteristic of the unity of theory and practice in the life work of Rosa Luxemburg that the unity of victory and defeat, individual fate and total process is the main thread running through her theory and her life. As early as her first polemic against Bernstein’s she argued that the necessarily ‘premature’ seizure of power by the proletariat was inevitable. She unmasked the resulting opportunist fear and lack of faith in revolution as “political nonsense which starts from the assumption that society progresses mechanically and which imagines a definite point in time external to and unconnected with the class struggle in which the class struggle will be won”.
  5. Marxism and Philosophy 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1923   Published: 1970
  6. Observations in Germany
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1923
  7. The World Revolution
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1923
    Russia is now a horrible picture with its revolutionary double nature. It lies there like a huge wreck on the shore, broken up by its revolution. There was a moment when a small lifeboat was sent out to save Soviet Russia. That boat was the KAPD, the best and largest part of the Spartacus Bund, with its new and really revolutionary policy for the world revolution. But Russia with its Bolshevik Government despised the KAPD and declined its help.

1922

  1. Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1922   Published: 1924
  2. Introduction to the Critique of the Gotha Programme 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1922
    Next to the Communist Manifesto of 1847-8 and the 'General Introduction' to the Critique of Political Economy of 1857, the Critique of the Gotha Programme of 1875 is, of all Karl Marx's shorter works, the most complete, lucid and forceful expression of the bases and consequences of his economic and social theory.
  3. Irish Communist Policy
    Letter to Sylvia Pankhurst

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1922
    The belief that some foreign power, the State, may accomplish it for the workers by decrees and laws is a social-democratic belief - nay, only the most narrow-minded social democrats believe it; most social democrats in former times knew quite well that the chief force of transformation must come from below. The programme of the Communist Party of Ireland is not only non-Communist because it appeals to the State for everything, but also because it asks from this State only reforms.
  4. 1905 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1922   Published: 1972
    For a number of years, when the reaction was triumphant, the year 1905 appeared to us as a completed whole, as the Russian revolution.
  5. The Principles of Revoltuionary Unionism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1922
    Adopted at the Berlin Congress of Revolutionary Unionist organizations, 1922.
  6. Svyazhsk
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1922   Published: 1943
    Larissa Reissner's vivid description of the 1918 battle for Svyazhsk during the Russian Civil War.

1921

  1. The Organisational Structure of the Communist Parties, the Methods and Content of Their Work: Theses
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1921
    Adopted at the Third Congress of the Communist International (Comintern) in 1921.
  2. Our Path: Against Putschism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1921
    If a Communist Party is to be built up again in Germany, then the dead of central Germany, Hamburg, the Rhineland, Baden, Silesia and Berlin, not to mention the many thousands of prisoners who have fallen victim to this Bakuninist lunacy, all demand in the face of the events of the last week: “Never again!”
  3. Principles of Party Organization
    Thesis on Organization and Structure of the Communist Parties, adopted at 3rd Congress of the Communist International in 1921

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1921   Published: 1975
  4. Theses of the Workers Opposition
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1921
    Advocated the role of unionized workers in directing the economy at a time when Soviet government organs were running industry by dictate and trying to exclude trade unions from a participatory role.
  5. Why we need the Fourth Communist Workers' International
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1921
    The language as well as the composition of the Third International can no longer be distinguished from that of Social Democracy. No longer will it set aside any manifestoes as opportunist; the call to participation in the reconstruction of Capitalism resounds ever more clearly as the official Moscow policy.
  6. Workers Opposition
    Solidarity London Pamphlet

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1921   Published: 1968
    Published in Soviet Russia in January 1921 and banned in March 1921.

1920

  1. The ABC of Communism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1920
    Written as a commentary on the Bolshevik Party program, combining a vision of communist society with a program for practical action.
  2. Class Consciousness
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
  3. Manifesto of the Second Congress of the Third International
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    Adopted in Moscow, August 1920, at the Second World Congress of the Communist International.
  4. The New Blanquism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    The revolution can only issue from the masses, and it is only through the masses that it is carried out. The Communist Party has forgotten this simple truth and, with the insufficient forces of a revolutionary minority, it wants to do what only the class can do, in such a way that the consequence will be defeat, which will set back the cause of the World Revolution for a long time, at the cost of the most painful sacrifices.
  5. Open Letter to Comrade Lenin
    A reply to 'left-wing' communism, an infantile disorder

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    he tactics that are brilliant for Russia are bad here. They lead to defeat here.
  6. Practice and Theory of Bolshevism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1920   Published: 1962
  7. Report from Moscow from Otto Ruhle
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    The Russian tactic is the tactic of authoritarian organisation. It has been so consistently developed and in the end carried to extremes, by the Bolsheviks to the fundamental principle of centralism that it has led to over-centralism... Centralism is the organisational principle of the bourgeois-capitalist age. With it the bourgeois state and the capitalist economy can be built up. Not however the proletarian state and the socialist economy. They demand the council system. For the KAPD - contrary to Moscow - the revolution is no party matter, the party no authoritarian organisation from the top down, the leader no military chief, the masses no army condemned to blind obedience, the dictatorship no despotism of a ruling clique; communism no springboard for the rise of a new Soviet bourgeoisie.
  8. The Revolution Is Not A Party Affair
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    The revolution is not a party affair. The three social-democratic parties (SPD, USPD, KPD) are so foolish as to consider the revolution as their own party affair and to proclaim the victory of the revolution as their party goal. The revolution is the political and economic affair of the totality of the proletarian class. Only the proletariat as a class can lead the revolution to victory. Everything else is superstition, demagogy and political chicanery.
  9. Socialisation (Part I)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    Marx never spoke of socialisation: he spoke of the expropriation of the expropriators.
  10. Socialisation (Part II)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    Socialism cannot be achieved by avoiding the class struggle. Socialisation which is devised to spare the profits of the capitalist class cannot be a path to Socialism.
  11. Soviets in Italy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920   Published: 1973
    Articles which Antonio Gramsci wrote for the weekly Turin journal Ordine Nuovo during 1919 and 1920.
  12. Theses on the Fundamental Tasks of the Communist International
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    Adopted at the Second Congress of the Communist International, August 1920.
  13. The Universal Crisis
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    That deafness and blindness concerning the coming dissolution of Capitalism is the historic fatality of the bourgeoisie. But the mass of workers are also blind and deaf to this dissolution. They regard the march of events without understanding, and without knowledge. To hope that the collapse of Capitalism will find a proletariat revolutionarily prepared and conscious of its mission is now shown to be utopian. The collapse proceeds too rapidly, events spring too suddenly before the eyes of men for them to be able to adopt their minds to the new realities. That, however, does not mean that they will do nothing.
  14. World Revolution and Communist Tactics
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1920
    World war and rapid economic collapse now make revolution objectively necessary before the masses have grasped communism intellectually: and this contradiction is at the root of the contradictions, hesitations and setbacks which make the revolution a long and painful process.

1919

  1. The German Revolution - First Stage
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    Through its rapidity and unanimity the revolution rested on the surface of civil society and could not as yet penetrate into the depth of the great masses.
  2. House of Cards
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    Again and again the revolution will bring to the fore the basic question: the general reckoning between labour and capital. And this reckoning is a world historical conflict between two mortal enemies which can be fought out only in a long power struggle, eye to eye, hand to hand.
  3. Manifesto of the Communist International to the Workers of the World
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    Adopted by the founding congress of the Third International (Comintern) in March 1919.
  4. The New War
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    Soldiers who enlisted, or were conscripted, for the old war have been quietly kept on to fight in the new war which began without any formal declaration. They have not been asked: "Do you approve this war; do you understand it?" They have merely been detained and will now fight against their comrades. Officially the British Government is not at war with Socialism in Europe though in actual fact British and other Allied soldiers have been fighting it for a long time, and British money and munitions are keeping the soldiers of other governments in the field against it.
  5. Order Prevails in Berlin
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    Rosa Luxemburg's last article, written just before she was murdered.
    She concludes with the words: "You foolish lackeys! Your 'order' is built on sand. Tomorrow the revolution will 'rise up again, clashing its weapons,' and to your horror it will proclaim with trumpets blazing:
    I was, I am, I shall be!"
  6. The Platform of the Communist International
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    Adopted by the founding congress of the Third International, March 1919.
  7. Rosa Luxemburg: Her Fight Against the German Betrayers of International Socialism
    Introduction to the Second Edition of the Junius Pamphlet, The Crisis of Social Democracy

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    It is as though Rosa Luxemburg, in anticipation of her sudden end, had gathered together in the Junius Pamphlet all the forces of her genial nature for a great work - the scientific, penetrating, independently searching and pondering mind of the theoretician, the fearless, burning passion of the convinced, daring revolutionary fighter, the inner richness and the splendid wealth of expression of the ever struggling artist. All the good spirits which nature had lavished upon her stood by her side as she wrote this work.
  8. Russia in 1919
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1919
    This book describes the economic, social and political situation Arthur Ransome saw during his visit to Russia in February and March of 1919. Underlining the description of these events is the wrenching famine in Russia caused by the Civil War. In this work Ransome interviews several prominent members of the Soviet government as well as ordinary citizens of Soviet Russia.
  9. The Seattle General Strike of 1919
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919   Published: 1972
    From February 6 to February 11, 1919, nearly 100,000 Seattle workers participated in a general strike. This pamphlet is a history of the strike, written by the History Committee of the General Strike Committee shortly after the end of the strike.
  10. Sexual Relations and the Class Struggle
    Love and New Morality

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1919   Published: 1972
  11. Social Democracy and Communism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919   Published: 1927
    Once again, as in the time of Marx, communism as a revolutionary and proletarian movement confronts socialism as a reformist and bourgeois movement. And the new communism is not just a new edition of the theory of radical social democracy. As a result of the world crisis, it has gained new depth, which totally differentiates it from the old theory.
  12. Socialization 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919   Published: 1920
    Socialization according to Bauer's recipe is legal expropriation without economic expropriation, it is what any bourgeois government might propose. The capitalist value of enterprises will be paid to the employers in compensation and henceforth they will receive in interest on bonds what they formerly received in profit. This socialization replaces private capitalism with State capitalism; the State takes on the task of sweating profits from the workers and giving it to capitalists.
  13. Ten Days That Shook The World 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1919   Published: 1960
    John Reed's gripping account of the Russian Revolution of November 1917.
  14. Terrorism and Communism
    A Contribution to the Natural History of Revolution

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    Kautsky's attack on the methods used by the Bolsheviks after their seizure of power in Russia.
  15. What are the Leaders Doing?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1919
    It is a revolution with all its externally chaotic development, with its alternating ebb and flow, with momentary surges towards the seizure of power and equally momentary recessions of the revolutionary breakers. And the revolution is making its way step by step through all these apparent zig-zag movements and is marching forward.

1918

  1. The Acheron in Motion
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    The healthy class instinct of the proletariat rebels against the schema of parliamentary cretinism. 'The liberation of the working class must be the work of the working class itself,' says the Communist Manifesto. And the'working class' is not a few hundred elected representatives who control society's destiny with speeches and rebuttals.
  2. The Beginning
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    Revolutions do not stand still. Their vital law is to advance rapidly, to outgrow themselves.
  3. A Call to the Workers of the World
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    Humanity is facing the alternative: Dissolution and downfall in capitalist anarchy, or regeneration through the social revolution.
  4. The Dictatorship of the Proletariat
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918   Published: 1971
    Karl Kautsky's attack on the Bolshevik Revolution.
  5. A Duty of Honour
    Against Capital Punishment

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    The existing penal system, which is permeated through and through with the brutal class spirit and barbarism of capitalism, must be extirpated root and branch.
  6. The Elections to the National Assembly
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    The great confrontation between capital and labour will determine the course of future history and, in its final result, admits of no other decision than the destruction of capitalist rule and the triumph of socialism.
  7. Karl Marx: The Story of His Life
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918   Published: 1936
    A biography of Karl Marx
  8. "Left-Wing" Communism
    An Infantile Disorder

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918
    Lenin's repsonse to ultraleftists who advocate 'no compromises' and refuse to work in 'reactionary' trade unions and parliamentary elections.
  9. Letters from Prison to Sophie Liebknecht
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
  10. Life of Korolenko
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    Rosa Luxemburg wrote this article as a preface to her translation, from Russian into German, of Vladimir Korolenko’s autobiographical novel Istoriia Moego Sovremennika (A History of My Contemporary). She undertook this work during her imprisonment for socialist opposition to the imperialist war from 1915 to 1918. The preface was written July 1918 in Breslau Prison
  11. Manifesto of the Makhnovists
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    We must win - win not so that we may follow the example of past years and hand over our fate to some new master, but to take it in our own hands and conduct our lives according to our own will and our own conception of truth.
  12. The National Assembly
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    Today it is not a question of democracy or dictatorship. The question that history has placed on the agenda is: bourgeois democracy or socialist democracy?
  13. Oh! How -- German is this Revolution!
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    The existing penal system, breathing the spirit of brutal class-spirit and capitalist barbarism must be torn up by the roots. A fundamental system of prison-reform must be inaugurated immediately.
  14. On the Spartacus Programme 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    For us the conquest of power will not be effected at one blow. It will be a progressive act, for we shall progressively occupy all the positions. of the capitalist state, defending tooth and nail each one that we seize.
  15. Our Program and the Political Situation
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    Tthe text of a speech by Rosa Luxemburg to the Founding Congress of the Communist Party of Germany (Spartacus League), made on December 31, 1918.
  16. The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918   Published: 1965
  17. Roads to Freedom
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918   Published: 1966
    The attempt to conceive imaginatively a better ordering of human society than the destructive and cruel chaos in which mankind has hitherto existed is by no means modern: it is at least as old as Plato.
  18. Die rote Fahne - [Elektronische Ressource]
    Online-Archiv

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1918
  19. The Russian Revolution 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918   Published: 1961
    The basic lesson of every great revolution, the law of its being, decrees: either the revolution must advance at a rapid, stormy, resolute tempo, break down all barriers with an iron hand and place its goals ever farther ahead, or it is quite soon thrown backward behind its feeble point of departure and suppressed by counter-revolution. To stand still, to mark time on one spot, to be contented with the first goal it happens to reach, is never possible in revolution. And he who tries to apply the home-made wisdom derived from parliamentary battles between frogs and mice to the field of revolutionary tactics only shows thereby that the very psychology and laws of existence of revolution are alien to him.
  20. The Russian tragedy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    There is only one solution to the tragedy in which Russia in caught up: an uprising at the rear of German imperialism, the German mass rising, which can signal the international revolution to put an end to this genocide.
  21. Six Red Months in Russia
    An Observers Account of Russia Before and During the Proletarian Dictatorship

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918
    Louise Bryant's account of her time in Russia during the revolution 1917-1918.
  22. The Socialisation of Society
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    A socialist society needs human beings from whom each one in his place, is full of passion and enthusiasm for the general well-being, full of self-sacrifice and sympathy for his fellow human beings, full of courage and tenacity in order to dare to attempt the most difficult.
  23. Terrorism & Communism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918   Published: 1969
    Trotsky defends the tactics of the Bolsheviks against Karl Kautsky's attacks.
  24. The War after the War
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918   Published: 1973
  25. War is the Health of the State
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    Once the State has begun to function, and a large class finds its interest and its expression of power in maintaining the State, this ruling class may compel obedience from any uninterested minority. The State thus becomes an instrument by which the power of the whole herd is wielded for the benefit of a class.
  26. What Does the Spartacus League Want?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    The proletarian revolution requires no terror for its aims; it hates and despises killing. It does not need these weapons because it does not combat individuals but institutions, because it does not enter the arena with naive illusions whose disappointment it would seek to revenge. It is not the desperate attempt of a minority to mold the world forcibly according to its ideal, but the action of the great massive millions of the people, destined to fulfill a historic mission and to transform historical necessity into reality.

1917

  1. After the War Ends
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1917
    When the soldiers return to their homes, new misery and new want are grinning at them. Awful as have been the sufferings that war has brought, in one respect the lot of the proletarians is still worse in times of peace. In war times the workers are needed; the bourgeoisie needs their enthusiasm, their willingness to sacrifice, their good will and the spirit of the army is an important factor in warfare. Money, therefore, becomes a secondary consideration, subservient to the aims of the war; aid and assistance are granted with unaccustomed liberality. The working class suffers, it is butchered, but those at home at least maintain a certain livelihood. That ceases with the coming of peace. The workers are not longer needed as soldiers; they are no longer comrades, defenders of the fatherland, heroes. Once more they become beasts of burden, objects of exploitation. Let them look for work, if they are hungry.
  2. An anti-Jewish pogrom in London
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1917
    Russians, Romanians, Armenians, peoples of all oppressed nationalities live here, Jews forming the majority, for Jews, the people who have no country, are always most cruelly oppressed by tyrannical Governments.
  3. The Hypocrisy of Puritanism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1917
    More than art, more than estheticism, life represents beauty in a thousand variations; it is, indeed, a gigantic panorama of eternal change. Puritanism, on the other hand, rests on a fixed and immovable conception of life; it is based on the Calvinistic idea that life is a curse, imposed upon man by the wrath of God. In order to redeem himself man must do constant penance, must repudiate every natural and healthy impulse, and turn his back on joy and beauty.
  4. Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1917
  5. The Old Mole
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1917
    The question of peace is in reality bound up with the unimpeded, radical development of the Russian Revolution. But the latter is in turn bound up with the parallel revolutionary struggles for peace on the part of the French, English, Italian and, especially, the German proletariat.
  6. Political Ideals
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1917   Published: 1963
    Russell argues that the aim of political institutions is to make the lives of individuals as good as possible through the cultivation of the individual's creative impulses.
  7. Prisons: A Social Crime and Failure
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1917
    The methods of coping with crime have no doubt undergone several changes, but mainly in a theoretic sense. In practice, society has retained the primitive motive in dealing with the offender; that is, revenge. It has also adopted the theologic idea; namely, punishment; while the legal and 'civilized' methods consist of deterrence or terror, and reform.
  8. The Psychology of Political Violence
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1917
    Compared with the wholesale violence of capital and government, political acts of violence are but a drop in the ocean. That so few resist is the strongest proof how terrible must be the conflict between their souls and unbearable social iniquities.
  9. The Russian Social Democrats and the National Question
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1917
  10. Songs of the Workers
    To fan the flames of discontent

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1917   Published: 1973
    The little red songbook.
  11. The State and Revolution 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1917
    Lenin on the Marxist view of the state and revolution.
  12. The Tasks of the Proletariat in the Present Revolution
    a.k.a. The April Theses

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1917
    This article contains Lenin’s famous April Theses read by him at two meetings of the All-Russia Conference of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, on April 4, 1917.
  13. The Town Labourer
    The New Civilization

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1917   Published: 1968
    the Hammonds look at the dislocations caused by the Industrial Revolution in Britian, from the point of view of those who suffered from them. Focuses on the years from 1760 to 1832.

1916

  1. Democracy and Education
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1916   Published: 1997
    John Dewey's classic work on the nature of education, and the ideal ways in which children should be educated.
  2. Either Or
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1916
    It is a question of either-or! Either we nakedly and shamelessly betray the International or we take the International in deadly seriousness and attempt to extend it into a firm stronghold, a bulwark, of the international socialist proletariat and of world peace.
  3. God and the State
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1916   Published: 1970
  4. The Junius Pamphlet 
    The Crisis of Social Democracy

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1916
    The voting of war credits in August 1914 was a shattering moment in the life of individual socialists and of the socialist movement in Europe. Those who had worked for, and wholly believed in the ability of, organized labour to stand against war now saw the major social democratic parties of Germany, France, and England rush to the defense of their fatherlands. Worker solidarity had proved an impotent myth. Rosa Luxemburg had for years warned against the stultifying effects of the overly bureaucratized German Social Democratic Party and the anti-revolutionary tendencies of the trade unions that played such a large role in the party's policy decisions. She spent much of the war in jail, where she wrote and then smuggled this pamphlet. Published under the name "Junius," the pamphlet became the guiding statement for the International Group, which became the Spartacus League.
  5. Newspapers and the Workers
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1916
    The worker must resolutely reject any solidarity with a bourgeois newspaper. And he must always, always, always remember that the bourgeois newspaper (whatever its hue) is an instrument of struggle motivated by ideas and interests that are contrary to his.
  6. What is Economics?
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1916   Published: 1968
    An outline of economics from a Marxist perspective.

1915

  1. The Accumulation of Capital An Anti-Critique
    The Accumulation of Capital, or What the Epigones Have Made of Marx's Theory

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1915   Published: 1921
    Rosa Luxemburg's reply to the critics of her book The Accumulation of Capital. Originally written in 1915 while Luxemburg was interned in the women’s prison, Barnimstrasse, Berlin, and published after her death.
  2. Force-Feeding a Suffragette
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1915
    A description of the brutal force-feeding of imprisoned suffragettes in England.
  3. Imperialism and World Economy
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1915   Published: 1929
    Bukharin's 1929 anticipation of the growth of the internationalization of capital.
  4. Marxism as Action
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1915
    Now is the time to bring to the fore the other part of Marxism which has been so neglected; now, when the workers movement must find a new direction, in order to overcome the narrow views and the passivity of the old era, if it wants to overcome the crisis. Men must themselves make history, or else history will be made by others for them. Of course, they cannot build without taking the circumstances into account, but they build nonetheless.
  5. Rebuilding the International
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1915
    The only real safeguard for peace depends on the resolution of the proletariat to remain faithful to its class politics and its international solidarity through all the storm of imperialism.
  6. Solidarity Forever
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Audio
    First Published: 1915
    Union song.
  7. Theses on the Right of Nations to Self-Determination
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1915

1914

  1. A History of Canadian Wealth
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1914   Published: 1972
    Myers lays bare the corruption, swindling, land deals, and bribery that are at the basis of Canadian history. This is Canada's past seen through the eyes of a muckraker.
  2. Imperialism, the World War and Social Democracy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1914
    The true cause, the trigger, the author of this war, is therefore not any particular State, but all the States that pursue an imperialist policy and seek to expand their territories: Germany, England, France, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Belgium and Japan; each one separately and all of them together are its cause. All the chatter of the bourgeois and socialist parties and their newspapers, according to which we are witnessing a war of national defense in which we are obliged to participate because we were attacked, all this chatter is nothing but a trick to dissimulate each country's culpability under a beautiful façade. To say that Germany, Prussia or England is the cause of the war is as stupid and as false as to assert that the cracks which open up on a volcano are the cause of its eruption.
    For many years, all the European States have been arming for this conflict. All of them want to satisfy their own rapacity and greed. All of them are equally guilty.

1913

  1. The Accumulation of Capital 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1913
    Rosa Luxemburg's analysis of the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation.
  2. The Idea of May Day on the March
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1913
    The brilliant basic idea of May Day is the autonomous, immediate stepping forward of the proletarian masses, the political mass action of the millions of workers who otherwise are atomized by the barriers of the state in the day-to-day parliamentary affairs, who mostly can give expression to their own will only through the ballot, through the election of their representatives.
  3. The Political Mass Strike 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1913
    If we want to prove ourselves worthy of the great coming events then we must not begin at the wrong end by attempting to make technical preparations for the mass strike. When the situation is ripe, the tactic of the mass strike will present itself. Let us not rack our brains about supporting it at the right time. What is necessary is that you watch the party press to ensure that it is your instrument and expresses your opinion and your mood. You must also see to it that our parliamentarians feel a mass pressing them from behind.

1912

  1. Class Struggle and Nation
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1912
    Does the bourgeoisie really have an interest in putting an end to national struggles? Not at all, it has the greatest interest in not putting an end to them, especially since the class struggle has reached a high point. Just like religious antagonisms, national antagonisms constitute excellent means to divide the proletariat, to divert its attention from the class struggle with the aid of ideological slogans and to prevent its class unity.
  2. Hope in the Future
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1912
    A translation of an article on socialism from "Le socialisme". The article discusses demands made by socialists to amend problems that persist in the capitalist system.
  3. How I Became a Socialist
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1912
    I am no worshiper of cloth of any color, but I love the red flag and what it symbolizes to me and other Socialists.
  4. Marxist Theory and Revolutionary Tactics
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1912
    If the party saw its function as restraining the masses from action for as long as it could do so, then party discipline would mean a loss to the masses of their initiative and potential for spontaneous action, a real loss, and not a transformation of energy. The existence of the party would then reduce the revolutionary capacity of the proletariat rather than increase it. It cannot simply sit down and wait until the masses rise up spontaneously in spite of having entrusted it with part of their autonomy; the discipline and confidence in the party leadership which keep the masses calm place it under an obligation to intervene actively and itself give the masses the call for action at the right moment. Thus, as we have already argued, the party actually has a duty to instigate revolutionary action, because it is the bearer of an important part of the masses' capacity for action; but it cannot do so as and when it pleases, for it has not assimilated the entire will of the entire proletariat, and cannot therefore order it about like a troop of soldiers. It must wait for the right moment: not until the masses will wait no longer and are rising up of their own accord, but until the conditions arouse such feeling in the masses that large-scale action by the masses has a chance of success.
  5. Political Appeal to American Workers
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1912
    There is but one issue that appeals to this army the unconditional surrender of the capitalist class. To be sure this cannot be achieved in a day and in the meantime the party enforces to the extent of its power its immediate demands and presses steadily onward toward the goal. It has its constructive program by means of which it develops its power and its capacity, step by step, seizing upon every bit of vantage to advance and strengthen its position, but never for a moment mistaking reform for revolution and never losing eight of the ultimate goal. Socialist reform must not be confounded with so-called capitalist reform. The latter is shrewdly designed to buttress capitalism; the former to overthrow it. Socialist reform vitalizes and promotes the social revolution.
  6. The Socialist Party's Appeal
    Candidate of the Socialist Party for the Presidency of the United States

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1912
    The Socialist party challenges the right of capitalism to longer exist, and proclaims the program of socialism as the legitimate successor of the present order.
  7. What Now?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1912
    We must now give battle on all fronts in the Reichstag to the nationalistic clap-trap that dogged our every step in the election campaign and that lurks in militarism, naval policy, colonialism, threats of war and personal rule.
  8. Women's Suffrage and Class Struggle
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1912
    In any society, the degree of female emancipation is the natural measure of the general emancipation.

1911

  1. Concerning Morocco
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1911
    The duty of Social Democracy is not to reassure public opinion, but to do the very reverse, to rouse it and warn it against the dangers lying dormant in it such adventures in international politics today. It is not enough for us to rely on the pacific intentions of some capitalist clique as a factor in achieving peace; we can only count on the resistance of the enlightened masses. By obeying the order to keep our peace, incidentally, we would be seen to be falling in with the wishes of the rulers of the Moroccan policy.
  2. Mass Action
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1911
    No party executive in the world can replace the mass of the party's own energy, and an organisation of a million which, at a great time and in the face of great tasks, would want to complain that it did not have the right leaders would prove its own shortcomings, because it would prove it has not understood the historical essence itself of the proletarian class struggle that consists in the proletarian masses not needing "leaders" in a bourgeois sense, that they are themselves leaders.
  3. One Big Union
    An Outline of a Possible Industrial Organization of the Working Class, with Chart

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1911
    This is the first edition of a booklet that was revised and republished many times by both the I. W. W. and Daniel De Leon's "Detroit I. W. W." (later the W. I. I. U.), to which the author defected in 1913. Later editions are available on this site: 1919 and ca. 1924.
  4. Peace Utopias
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1911
    What is our task in the question of peace? It does not consist merely in vigorously demonstrating at all times the love of peace of the Social Democrats; but first and foremost our task is to make clear to the masses of people the nature of militarism and sharply and clearly to bring out the differences in principle between the standpoint of the Social Democrats and that of the bourgeois peace enthusiasts.

1910

  1. Anarchism and Other Essays
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1910
  2. Anarchism: What It Really Stands For 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1910
    Anarchsim: The philosophy of a new social order based on liberty unrestricted by man-made law; the theory that all forms of government rest on violence, and are therefore wrong and harmful, as well as unnecessary.
  3. Manifesto of the Socialist Party of Canada - 1910
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1910
    Tthe Socialist Party of Canada is the nucleus of the revolt of the slaves of Canada against capitalism. Its policy is to educate the slaves of Canada to an understanding of their position and organize them for concerted political action, to the end that they may wrest the powers of State from the hands of capital, and use them to strip the master class of its property rights in the means of production and to make these the collective property of the producers.
  4. The Next Step
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1910
    A decision must be made as to whether German Social Democracy, which is supported by the strongest trade-union organization and the greatest army of voters in the world, can bring about a mass action (which has been done at various times with great success in little Belgium, in Italy, in Austria-Hungary, in Sweden - not to mention Russia), or whether in Germany a trade-union organization numbering two million members and a powerful, well-disciplined party is just as incapable of giving birth to an effective mass action at the crucial moment as were the French trade unions, which had been crippled by anarchist confusion, and the French Socialist party, which had been weakened by internal disputes.
  5. Theory & Practice 
    A polemic against Comrade Kautsky's theory of the Mass Strike

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1910
    Rosa Luxemburg confronts Karl Kautsky on the crucial questions of the General Mass Strike and on the relationship of spontaneity to organization, as well as on the unity of theory and practice. This crucial 1910 debate in German Social Democracy led to Luxemburg's revolutionary break with Karl Kautsky and foreshadowed the collapse of the Second International at the outbreak of World War I.

1908

  1. Foundations of Christianity
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1908   Published: 1953
    I have proceeded to describe the roots of primitive Christianity without intending either to extol or stigmatize it, but merely to understand it.
  2. The Illegals
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1908
    For the anarchist, if he doesn't care about bourgeois legality and honesty, must above all aim at preserving himself as long as possible for action and realizing to the greatest extent possible for himself the life he desires . His work, rather than appearing harmful and destructive, should be a work of life, a long apostolate of stubborn labor, of goodness, of love.
  3. The Labour Movement and Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1908
    Unions and political organizations each have their role in the struggle against capitalism.
  4. The Problem of Nationality and Autonomy 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1908
    Rosa Luxemburg on the national question, federalism, autonomy, and the right of nations to self-determination.
  5. There are Reforms and There are Reforms 
    Or, Two Sorts of Reforms

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1908
    Those who believe that we will manage to gradually realize socialism by social reform within the current regime misunderstand the class antagonisms that determine reforms. Current social reform, having as a goal the preservation of the capitalist system, finds itself in opposition to the proletarian reform of tomorrow, which will have the contrary goal: the suppression of the system. The organic connection that exists today between reform and revolution is completely different. In fighting for reform the working class develops and makes itself strong. It ends by conquering political power. This is the unity of reform and revolution.

1907

  1. The Iron Heel
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1907   Published: 1971
  2. Socialism and Religion
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1907
    In declaring that religion is a private matter, we do not mean to say that it is immaterial to us, what general conceptions our members hold. We prefer a thorough scientific understanding to an unscientific religious faith. But we are convinced, that the new conditions will of themselves alter the religious conceptions, and that religious or anti-religious propaganda is unable to accomplish or prevent this.
  3. The Two Methods of Trade-Union Policy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1907
    To be sure, revolutions and revolutionary struggles cannot be transplanted artificially, by means of ‘good intentions’, into a country. But the examples and lessons of a neighbouring revolutionary country can at least shake the belief that treading softly is the only method of achieving bliss. And well they should.
  4. Unionism and Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1907
    The labor movement of modrn times is the product of past ages. It has come down to us for the impetus of our day, in pursuit of its world-wide mission of emancipation.

1906

  1. The Digger Movement in the Days of the Commonwealth
    As Revealed in the Writings of Gerrard Winstanley, the Digger, Mystic and Rationalist, Communist and Social Reformer

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1906
  2. In Russian and French Prisons
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1906   Published: 1991
    Kropotkin's criticism of the penal system, and an inside look into the horrors and realities of what life in prison entails.
  3. The Jungle
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1906
    Upton Sinclair's sixth novel and first popular success, written when he was sent by the socialist weekly newspaper Appeal to Reason to Chicago to investigate conditions in the stockyards. Though intended to create sympathy for the exploited and poorly treated immigrant workers in the meat-packing industry, The Jungle instead aroused widespread public indignation at the quality of and impurities in processed meats and thus helped bring about the passage of federal food-inspection laws. Sinclair ironically commented at the time, "I aimed at the public's heart and by accident I hit it in the stomach." The Jungle is the most enduring of the works of the "muckrakers".
  4. The Mass Strike, the Political Party and the Trade Unions 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1906
    Luxemburg writes that "the mass strike in Russia [in 1905] has been realised not as means of evading the political struggle of the working-class, and especially of parliamentarism, not as a means of jumping suddenly into the social revolution by means of a theatrical coup, but as a means, firstly, of creating for the proletariat the conditions of the daily political struggle and especially of parliamentarism. The revolutionary struggle in Russia, in which mass strikes are the most important weapon, is, by the working people, and above all by the proletariat, conducted for those political rights and conditions whose necessity and importance in the struggle for the emancipation of the working-class Marx and Engels first pointed out, and in opposition to anarchism fought for with all their might in the International."
  5. Preface to the French Edition of 'Anti-Patriotism'
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1906
    In case of mobilization, regardless of who the aggressor appears to be (for, after all, when a war breaks out, one can never tell who the real aggressor is), the proletariat of the belligerent countries should respond to the call to arms, by an insurrection against their rulers, each within his own boundaries, to establish the Socialist or Communist regime.
  6. Revolution and other Essays
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1906
  7. Riot and Revolution
    Speech by Rosa Luxemburg on Trial for Inciting to Riot

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1906
    On the twelfth of November 1906 Rosa Luxemburg was tried at the Criminal Court at Weimar for “inciting to the use of physical force” by the speech she contributed to the discussion on the General Strike at the annual Congress of the German Socialist Party held in 1905 at Jena.

1905

  1. Anti-patriotism
    Speech to the jury at his trial in 1905 for 'anti-militarist' activities

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    Our war-cry against war is "Insurrection Rather Than War!"
  2. Class Unionism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905   Published: 1909
  3. Constitution and By-Laws of Industrial Workers of the World
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among millions of working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things of life....
  4. Craft Unionism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    The old form of trade unionism no longer meets the demands of the working class. The old trade union has not only fulfilled its mission and outlived its usefulness, but that it is now positively reactionary.
  5. Foreword to the Anthology: The Polish Question and the Socialist Movement
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    Luxemburg argues that "the proletariat the Poland can and must fight for the defense of national identity as a cultural legacy, that has its own right to exist and flourish." But she maintains that "our national identity cannot be defended by national separatism; it can only be secured through the struggle to overthrow despotism" throughout the entire country [i.e. Russia, of which Poland was a part].
  6. Industrial Unionism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    In capitalist society you are the lower class; the capitalists are the upper class-because they are on your backs; if they were not on your backs they could not be above you.
  7. A Modern Utopia
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
  8. The Revolution in Russia
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
  9. Revolutionary Unionism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    Speech at Chicago, November 25, 1905
  10. Socialism and The Churches
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    Social-Democracy in no way fights against religious beliefs. On the contrary, it demands complete freedom of conscience for every individual and the widest possible toleration for every faith and every opinion. But, from the moment when the priests use the pulpit as a means of political struggle against the working classes, the workers must fight against the enemies of their rights and their liberation. For he who defends the exploiters and who helps to prolong this present regime of misery, he is the mortal enemy of the proletariat, whether he be in a cassock or in the uniform of the police.
  11. Socialist Reconstruction of Society
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    Without political organization, the labor movement cannot triumph; without economic organization, the day of its political triumph would be the day of its defeat.
  12. Speech at the Founding Convention of the Industrial Workers of the World
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1905
    I realize that I stand in the presence of those who in the past have fought, are fighting, and will continue to fight the battles of the working class economically and politically, until the capitalist class is overthrown and the working class are emancipated from all of the degrading thralldom of the ages. In this great struggle the working class are often defeated, but never vanquished.

1904

  1. In the Storm
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1904
    The war destroys the appearance which leads us to believe in peaceful social evolution; in the omnipotence and the untouchability of bourgeois legality; in national exclusivism; in the stability of political conditions; in the conscious direction of politics by these statesmen or parties.
  2. Organizational Questions of the Russian Social Democracy 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1904
    Rosa Luxemburg's contribution to the debate within the Russian Social Democratic movement on party organization and democratic centralism. Luxemburg joins Trotsky in warning of the dangers inherent in centralism and argues against the concentration of power in a Central Committee. From a Socialist Revolutionary perspective Luxemburg puts forward compelling arguments against Lenin's conception of the revolutionary party.
  3. Social Democracy and Parliamentarism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1904
    Parliamentarism is far from being an absolute product of democratic development, of the progress of the human species, and of such nice things. It is, rather, the historically determined form of the class rule of the bourgeoisie and – what is only the reverse of this rule – of its struggle against feudalism.

1903

  1. An anti-clerical policy of Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1903
    According to Luxemburg, "the incessant guerrilla warfare waged for the last ten years against the priests is for French middle-class Republicans one of the best ways of turning away the attention of the working-class from social questions, and of weakening the class struggle."
  2. Crime and Punishment
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1903
    Let us have done with this savage idea of punishment, which is without wisdom. Let us work for the freedom of man from the oppressions which make criminals, and for the enlightened treatment of all the sick.
  3. In Memory of the Proletariat Party
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1903
  4. Marxist Theory and the Proletariat
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1903
    A sketch of Marxist theory.
  5. Report of the Siberian Delegation
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1903
  6. Stagnation and Progress of Marxism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1903
    Only in proportion as our movement progresses, and demands the solution of new practical problems do we dip once more into the treasury of Marx's thought, in order to extract therefrom and to utilize new fragments of his doctrine. But since our movement, like all the campaigns of practical life, inclines to go on working in old ruts of thought, and to cling to principles after they have ceased to be valid, the theoretical utilization of the Marxist system proceed very slowly.

1902

  1. Crime and Criminals 
    Address to the Prisoners in the Chicago Jail

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1902
    So long as big criminals can get the coal fields, so long as the big criminals have control of the city council and get the public streets for street cars and gas rights, this is bound to send thousands of poor people to jail. So long as men are allowed to monopolize all the earth, and compel others to live on such terms as these men see fit to make, then you are bound to get into jail.
  2. Martinique
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1902
    Written after the volanic eruption in May, 1902 at the port of St. Pierre.
  3. Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1902
  4. The Position and Significance of J. Dietzgen's Philosophical Works
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1902
    A thorough study of Dietzgen's philosophical writings is an important and indispensable auxiliary for the understanding of the fundamental works of Marx and Engels. Dietzgen's work demonstrates that the proletariat has a mighty weapon not only in proletarian economics, but also in proletarian philosophy.

1901

  1. Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1901
    A different conception of society, very different from that which now prevails, is in process of formation. Under the name of Anarchy, a new interpretation of the past and present life of society arises, giving at the same time a forecast as regards its future.
  2. The Boycott
    Lafargue, Paul

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1901
    The boycott, which the bourgeoisie regards with sentimental tenderness when directed against the trade of its commercial rival, it considers as a crime when employed by the workers in defence of their livelihood. The mere blacklisting of a workshop by a trade union is an offence, in Europe as well as in America, punished by law and the infliction of civil damages, calculated to exhaust the treasury of the union and break down the power of resistance of the workers.
  3. The Socialist Crisis in France
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1901
    "The Republic is in danger! That is why it was necessary for a socialist to become the bourgeois Minister of Commerce. The Republic is in danger! That is why the socialist had to remain in the cabinet even after the massacre of the striking workers on the Island of Martinique and in Chalon. The Republic is in danger! As a result, inquiries into the massacres had to be blocked, the parliamentary investigations of the horrors perpetrated in the colonies had to be discarded, and the amnesty law accepted."

1900

  1. Social Reform or Revolution 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1900   Published: 1908
    Rosa Luxemburg's attack on reformism.

1899

  1. The Dreyfus Affair and the Millerand Case
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1899
    For in the Dreyfus case four social factors make themselves felt which give it the stamp of a question directly related to the class struggle. They are: militarism, chauvinism-nationalism, anti-Semitism, and clericalism. In our written and spoken agitation we always combat these direct enemies of the socialist proletariat by virtue of our general tendencies. It would thus be totally incomprehensible to not enter into a struggle with these enemies exactly when it is a question of unmasking them, not as abstract clichés, but through the use of living current events.
  2. Eight-Hour Day at the Party Congress
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1899
    The legal eight-hour day is one of the demands on our minimal program. i.e., it is the very least minimum of social reform which we, as representatives of the workers’ interests, must demand and expect from the present state. The fragmentation of even these minimal demands into still smaller morsels goes against all our tactics.
  3. Evolutionary Socialism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1899
  4. The Militia and Militarism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1899
    In militarism, the power and rule of both the capitalist state and the bourgeois class are crystallized; just as Social Democracy is the only party which opposes them in principle, so too, inversely, is the opposition in principle to militarism part of the nature of Social Democracy. To abandon the struggle against the military system amounts in fact to the same thing as renouncing the struggle against the present social order in general.
  5. Rosa Luxemburg: Speech to the Hanover Congress
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1899
    In its struggle, the working class has no greater enemy than its own illusions -- and those who foster illusions.

1898

  1. I accuse!
    Letter to the President of the Republic

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1898
    Emile Zola's condemnation of the frame-up of Captain Dreyfus.
  2. The Industrial Development of Poland
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1898
    First published in 1898, under the title Die Industrielle Entwicklung Polens.
  3. Opportunism and the art of the possible
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1898
    Opportunism is a political game which can be lost in two ways: not only basic principles but also practical success may be forfeited.
  4. Rosa Luxemburg: Speeches to Stuttgart Congress
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1898
    Luxenburg criticizes Eduard Bernstein's comment: "The final goal, whatever it may be, is nothing to me: the movement is everything!" with the reply "Anyone who says that does not stand for the necessity of seizing political power. You see that some comrades in the Party do not stand for the final goals of our movement, and that it is necessary to express that fact unambiguously."

1896

  1. Only in Conjunction With the Proletarian Woman Will Socialism Be Victorious
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1896
    We must, first of all, learn how we ought to do our work among women.
  2. The Polish Question at the International Congress in London
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1896
  3. Reform or Revolution?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1896
    Socialism knows that revolutionary upheavals and transformations proceed from the rock bed of material needs.
  4. Revolution and Counter Revolution
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1896   Published: 1971
    A collection of articles and letters written by Marx for the New York Tribune in 1851 and 1852.
  5. Social Democracy and the National Struggles in Turkey
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1896
    In foreign policy as in domestic politics, Social Democracy can adopt its own position, which in both spheres must be determined by the same standpoints, namely by the internal social conditions of the phenomenon in question, and by our general principles.

1895

  1. Introduction to Karl Marx's The Class Struggles in France 1848 to 1850
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1895
  2. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 27
    Engels 1890 - 1895

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1895
    Includes The Foreign Policy of Russian Tsardom, and A Critique of the Draft Social-Democratic Program of 1891, and On the History of Early Christianity, and The Peasant Question in France and Germany
  3. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 50
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1895
  4. Proposed Communist Settlement
    A New Colony for Tyneside or Wearside

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1895
  5. The Time Machine
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1895

1894

  1. Das Capital, Volume 3
    The Process of Capitalist Production as a Whole

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1894   Published: 1971
  2. How I Became a Socialist
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1894
    Morris looks back over his life and describes his political development.
  3. On the History of Early Christianity
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1894   Published: 1895
  4. The Peasant Question in France and Germany
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1894   Published: 1895
    Part of the current debate around agrarian issues in which Engels discusses a policy of alliance between the working class and the working peasantry.
  5. What Are the Origins of May Day?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1894
    As long as the struggle of the workers against the bourgeoisie and the ruling class continues, as long as all demands are not met, May Day will be the yearly expression of these demands. And, when better days dawn, when the working class of the world has won its deliverance then too humanity will probably celebrate May Day in honour of the bitter struggles and the many sufferings of the past.

1893

  1. Das Capital, Volume 2
    The Process of Circulation of Capital

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1893   Published: 1956
  2. The Ideal Book
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1893
    The designer William Morris describes his ideas about book design.
  3. A Sex Revolution
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1893   Published: 1985
    A dynamic speaker and writer, anarchist, spiritualist, feminist and mentor of Emma Goldman, Lois Waisbrooker was arrested several times for advocating 'women's control over their own bodies.' In her 1893 novel, A Sex Revolution, women demand control of the world for fifiy years to see whether it leads to the abolition of war. This work is strikingly contemporary condemnation of the masculine concept of 'defense by the State' which has brought us all to the bring of annihiliation.

1892

  1. Absolutism and Revolution in Germany
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1892   Published: 1910
  2. Biography of Marx
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1892
  3. The Mark
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1892
    A short essay on the primitive form of collective land ownership in Germany and the subsequent development of private property.
  4. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 49
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1892

1891

  1. A Critique of the Draft Social-Democratic Program of 1891
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1891
  2. The Erfurt Program
    Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1891
    Program of Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands.
  3. On the 20th Anniversary of the Paris Commune
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1891
  4. The Soul of Man under Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1891
    Pleasure is Nature's test, her sign of approval. When man is happy, he is in harmony with himself and his environment.

1890

  1. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 48
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1890
  2. News from Nowhere 
    or An Epoch of Rest: Being Some Chapters From a Utopian Romance

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1890   Published: 1892
    A utopian novel by William Morris which combines a vision of working class revolution with a picture of a society that is primarily agricultural and based on handicraft production.
  3. Statement of Principles of the Hammersmith Socialist Society
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1890
    Advocates "an essential change in the basis of society: the present basis is privilege for the few and consequent servitude for the many; the further basis will be equality of condition for all, which we firmly believe to be the essence of true society."

1889

  1. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 26
    Engels 1882 - 1889

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1889
    Includes Manuscripts on Early German History and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, and Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy, and The Role of Force in History
  2. Socialism and Anarchism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1889
    Morris repudiates the anarchist view that freedom from authority means the individual doing what he pleases under all circumstances. This, he says is "an absolute negation of society".

1888

  1. A Dream of John Ball
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1888
    Morris' novel describes a dream and time travel leading to an encounter between the medieval and modern worlds. Morris describes a positive image of the Middle Ages, seeing it as a golden, if brief, period when peasants were prosperous and happy and guilds protected workers from exploitation.
    It contains the famous passage "... I pondered all these things, and how men fight and lose the battle, and the thing that they fought for comes about in spite of their defeat, and when it comes turns out not to be what they meant, and other men have to fight for what they meant under another name..."
  2. Shelley's Socialism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1888
    One of the few Marxist evaluations of poetry of Percy Byshhe Shelley.
  3. Thomas More and his Utopia
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1888
    More can only be understood in the light of his age, to comprehend which a knowledge of the beginnings of capitalism and the decline of feudalism, of the powerful part played by the Church on the one hand, and of world commerce on the other, is necessary.
  4. The Utopists: Owen, Saint Simon, and Fourier
    Chapter 13 of Socialism From The Root Up

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1888

1887

  1. The Chicago Anarchists
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1887
    The working-class are up in arms about this matter. Anarchist, Socialist, anti-Anarchist, anti-Socialist alike are astonished, indignant, thoroughly aroused. Everywhere, except in Chicago, meetings are being held, resolution condemnatory of this judicial murder are being passed.
  2. The Policy of Abstention
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1887
    Morris argues that socialism should be fought for using mass action rather than parliamentary action.
  3. The Role of Force in History
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1887
  4. The Secularization Yet to be Done
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1887
    The secularization of primary instruction, which our bourgeois republic doesn't want, is nothing but the substitution of one religion for another. It's a matter of placing the capitalist faith instead of the Christian faith in the brain in process of formation of working class France, for the greater security and profit of the economic and political exploiters.

1886

  1. Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1886
  2. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 47
    Engels 1883 - 1886

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1886
    Letters.
  3. Socialism From The Root Up
    or Socialism Its Growth & Outcome

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1886   Published: 1888
    Traces the development of history in relation to socialism.
  4. Socialism: The Ends and the Means
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1886
    Shall we waste our wealth or use it? Why do we waste it now? Because we are cowards and therefore unjust. The wealth was made by all and should be used for the benefit of all; but we in our fear have forgotten what is meant by all.

1885

  1. The Manifesto of The Socialist League
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1885
    Advocating the principles of Revolutionary International Socialism; that is, we seek a change in the basis of Society - a change which would destroy the distinctions of classes and nationalities.
  2. On The History of the Communist League
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1885

1884

  1. Art and Labour
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1884
    Says Morris: "By art, I do not mean only pictures and sculpture, nor only these and architecture, that is beautiful building properly ornamented; these are only a portion of art, which comprises, as I understand the word a great deal more; beauty produced by the labour of man both mental and bodily, the expression of the interest man takes in the life of man upon the earth with all its surroundings, in other words the human pleasure of life is what I mean by art."
  2. Art and Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1884
    Morris sees work as a necessity of human life, not merely as a means of obtaining a livelihood. Morris insists that only socialism can restore work to its proper, central position.
  3. How We Live and How We Might Live
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1884   Published: 1887
    Morris sees capitalist society as based on war between nations, between rival capitalists, against colonial peoples and between classes. Only the victory of Socialist revolution can end all these wars.
  4. Marx and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung (1848-49)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1884
  5. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1884

1883

  1. Art Under Plutocracy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1883   Published: 1884
    Morris asks "What kind of an account shall we be able to give to those who come after us of our dealings with the earth, which our forefathers handed down to us still beautiful, in spite of all the thousands of years of strife and carelessness and selfishness?"
  2. Art, Wealth, and Riches
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1883
    A lecture by William Morris, delivered in Manchester in 1883. Morris poses the question "Is art to be limited to a narrow class who only care for it in a very languid way, or is it to be the solace and pleasure of the whole people?"
  3. Articles by Engels in the Labour Standard 1878-1881
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1883
  4. Articles by Engels on the Death of Karl Marx
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1883
  5. The Right To Be Lazy
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1883
    Our epoch has been called the century of work. It is in fact the century of pain, misery and corruption.
  6. Useful Work versus Useless Toil
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1883
    Morris proposes that while work is essential for our survival, nevertheless "there is some labour which is so far from being a blessing that it is a curse; that it would be better for the community and for the worker if the latter were to fold his hands and refuse to work."

1881

  1. First Draft of Letter To Vera Zasulich
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1881

1880

  1. The Development of Utopian Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1880
    The Utopians' mode of thought has for a long time governed the Socialist ideas of the 19th century, and still governs some of them. Until very recently, all French and English Socialists did homage to it. The earlier German Communism, including that of Weitling, was of the same school. To all these, Socialism is the expression of absolute truth, reason and justice, and has only to be discovered to conquer all the world by virtue of its own power. And as an absolute truth is independent of time, space, and of the historical development of man, it is a mere accident when and where it is discovered. With all this, absolute truth, reason, and justice are different with the founder of each different school.
  2. The Paris Commune
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1880
    Under the name "Commune of Paris" a new idea was born, to become the starting point for future revolutions. As is always the case, this fruitful idea was not the product of some one individual's brain, of the conceptions of some philosopher; it was born of the collective spirit, it sprang from the heart of a whole community.
  3. The Programme of the Parti Ouvrier
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1880
    This document was drawn up in May 1880, when French workers' leader Jules Guesde came to visit Marx in London. The Preamble was dictated by Marx, while the other two parts of minimum political and economic demands were formulated by Marx and Guesde, with assistance from Engels and Paul Lafargue, who with Guesde was to become a leading figure in the Marxist wing of French socialism.
  4. Socialism: Utopian and Scientific
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1880
  5. A Workers' Inquiry
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1880

1878

  1. Anti-Duhring
    Herr Eugen Duhring's Revolution in Science

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1878

1875

  1. The Communistic Societies of the United States 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1875   Published: 1965
    Describes a dozen Utopian societies.
  2. Critique of the Gotha Programme 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1875
    Karl Marx's criticisms of the programme adopted by congress to unite the two German socialist parties in 1875.
  3. Letter to Bracke
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1875
    Karl Marx comments on the unity programme (Gotha programme) of the German Democratic Workers Party and the People's Party.

1874

  1. Conspectus of Bakunin's Statism and Anarchy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1874   Published: 1875
    Marx's notes on Bakunin's recent book Statism and Anarchy.

1873

  1. The Bakuninists at Work
    An account of the Spanish revolt in the summer of 1873

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1873
    This series of articles was written in the wake of the events in Spain during the summer of 1873, which were the culmination of the Spanish bourgeois revolution of 1868-74. Engels focused his attention on the involvement of the Spanish Bakuninists in the abortive cantonal revolts organised in the south and south-east of the country by the Intransigents, an extremist republican grouping that advocated the partition of Spain into independent cantons.
  2. Political Indifferentism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1873

1872

  1. Fictitious Splits in the International
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1872
  2. The Hague Congress of the International Workingmen's Association
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1872
    The fifth congress of the First International.
  3. The Housing Question
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1872
    Only by the solution of the social question, that is, by the abolition of the capitalist mode of production, is the solution of the housing question made possible.
  4. La Liberté Speech
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1872
    Citizens, let us think of the basic principle of the International: Solidarity. Only when we have established this life-giving principle on a sound basis among the numerous workers of all countries will we attain the great final goal which we have set ourselves. The revolution must be carried out with solidarity; this is the great lesson of the French Commune, which fell becaue none of the other centres -- Berlin, Madrid, etc. -- developed great revolutionary movements comparable to the mighty uprising of the Paris proletariat.
  5. The Nationalisation of the Land
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1872
    I do not intend discussing here all the arguments put forward by the advocates of private property in land, by jurists, philosophers and political economists, but shall confine myself firstly to state that they have tried hard to disguise the primitive fact of conquest under the cloak of "Natural Right". If conquest constituted a natural right on the part of the few, the many have only to gather sufficient strength in order to acquire the natural right of reconquering what has been taken from them. In the progress of history the conquerors found it convenient to give to their original titles, derived from brute force, a sort of social standing through the instrumentality of laws imposed by themselves.

1871

  1. Bakunin on Marx and Rothschild
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1871   Published: 1979
  2. The Civil War in France 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1871
    Written by Karl Marx as an address to the General Council of the International, with the aim of distributing to workers of all countries a clear understanding of the character and world-wide significance of the heroic struggle of the Paris Communards of 1871 and their historical experience to learn from.
  3. The Internationale
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Audio
    First Published: 1871
    Is a famous socialist, communist, social-democratic and anarchist anthem and one of the most widely recognized songs in the world.
  4. The Internationale: Recordings
    Resource Type: Audio
    First Published: 1871
    Versions of The Internationale in more than 40 languages.
  5. Interview with Karl Marx Head of L'Internationale
    Revolt of Labour Against Capital - the Two Faces of L'Internationale - Transformation of Society - Its Progress in the United States

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1871
  6. Manifesto of the Paris Commune
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1871
    Published in Paris Libre, April 21, 1871.

1870

  1. The English Government and the Fenian Prisoners
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1870
    On the treatment of Fenian prisoners.
  2. Letters of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 1870 & after
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1870   Published: 1895
  3. Strange Cults and Utopias of 19th Century America
    Original title: History of American Socialisms

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1870   Published: 1966
    Histories of communal experiments and communities in the United States.

1869

  1. Catechismof a Revolutionist
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1869
    a program for the "merciless destruction" of society and the state, written by the anarchist Sergey Nechayev.
  2. Letters of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels for the 1860s
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1869
  3. The Program of the International Brotherhood
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1869
    Bakunin maintains that his revolutionary anarchist vision "excludes any idea of dictatorship and of a controlling and directive power." but then goes on to say "It is, however, necessary for the establishment of this revolutionary alliance and for the triumph of the Revolution over reaction that the unity of ideas and of revolutionary action find an organ in the midst of the popular anarchy which will be the life and the energy of the Revolution. This organ should be the secret and universal association of the International Brothers.... a sort of revolutionary general staff, composed of dedicated, energetic, intelligent individuals, sincere friends of the people above all, men neither vain nor ambitious, but capable of serving as intermediaries between the revolutionary idea and the instincts of the people."

1868

  1. Marx's Marginal Notes on the Program and Rules of Bakunin's International Alliance of Socialist Democracy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1868
  2. Synopsis of Capital
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1868
    This is a synopsis of Capital, Volume I, written by Engels in 1868. Upon Capital's release, Engels began constructing a comprehensive summation. Engels' synopsis serves two useful contributions: First, Engels was a far more rapid writer than Marx, and more readable. Second, Engels could distance himself from the massive web of ideas without "losing his place in it", and identify primary points to be made. This text was published in Fortnightly Review. Engels only summarized the first four chapters of Volume I of Capital.

1867

  1. Bloody Legislation Against the Expropriated, from the End of the 15th Century. Forcing Down of Wages by Acts of Parliament
    Capital, Volume One: Chapter 28

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1867
    Agricultural people: first forcibly expropriated from the soil, driven from their homes, turned into vagabonds, and then whipped, branded, tortured by laws grotesquely terrible, into the discipline necessary for the wage system.
  2. Das Capital, Volume 1 
    A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1867   Published: 1890
    Marx's great work sets out to grasp and portray the totality of the capitalist mode of production, and the bourgeois society that emerges from it. He describes and connects all its economic features, together with its legal, political, religious, artistic, philosophical and ideological manifestations.

1866

  1. National Catechism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1866
    Bakunin sketches out his vision of an anarchist social and political revolution, stating that "in order to prepare for this revolution it will be necessary to conspire and to organize a strong secret association coordinated by an international nucleus."
  2. Revolutionary Catechism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1866
    Bakunin believed that workers were very far from being able to attain revolutionary consciousness on their own. To imbue the masses with this consciousness and to prevent the deformation of a resulting revolution, Bakunin felt that the only alternative was to organize a secret International Fraternity headed by himself. Bakunin was convinced that this kind of vanguard movement was indispensable to the success of the anarchist Social Revolution.
  3. What have the working classes to do with Poland?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1866
    Engels wrote these articles after controversy developed at the 1865 London conference of the International concerning including a demand for Poland's independence in the upcoming Geneva Congress. In order to substantiate the position of the Central Committee on the "nationalities question," it was necessary to deal with 1) the Proudhonists who contended politics and national liberation movements have nothing to do with the working class, indeed, detracted from real working class issues, and 2) reveal the demagogic essence of the so-called "principle of nationalities" that helped the Bonapartists make use of national movements for their own political ends.

1865

  1. Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1865
    The speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln at his inauguration at the start of his second term as president.
  2. Address of the International Working Men's Association to Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1865
    The workingmen of Europe feel sure that, as the American War of Independence initiated a new era of ascendancy for the middle class, so the American Antislavery War will do for the working classes. They consider it an earnest of the epoch to come that it fell to the lot of Abraham Lincoln, the single-minded son of the working class, to lead his country through the matchless struggle for the rescue of an enchained race and the reconstruction of a social world.
  3. Value, Price and Profit
    Speech by Marx to the International Working Men's Association, June 1865

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1865   Published: 1898

1864

  1. Inaugural Address of the International Workingmen's Association
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1864
    Speech by Karl Marx to the founding meeting of the First International.
  2. The International Workingmen's Association, General Rules
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1864
    Rules of the First International Workingmen's Association, adopted at its founding congress in 1864.

1863

  1. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 31
    Marx 1861 - 1863

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1863
    A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.
  2. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 32
    Marx 1861 - 1863

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1863
    Economic Manuscript of 1861-63 (Continuation). A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.
  3. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 33
    Marx 1861 - 1863

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1863
    Economic Manuscript of 1861-63. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Continuation).

1861

  1. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 28
    Marx 1857 - 1861

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1861
    Economic Manuscripts of 1857-58.
  2. Writings by Marx and Engels on the U.S. Civil War
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1861   Published: 1862

1859

  1. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1859
  2. Letters of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels for the 1850s
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1859
  3. Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1859
    Perhaps Marx's most succinct summary of his analysis of political economy.

1858

  1. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 15
    Marx and Engels 1856 - 1858

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1858
    Mainly articles about Europe, colonialism, and India.
  2. Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1858   Published: 1964
    Thes notes of 1857-1858 throw light on Marx's views concerning the economic development of human society as a whole, from "primitive communism" to capitalism and socialistm. The notes deal partcularly with the epochs of historic development and their evolutionary stages.

1857

  1. Afghanistan
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1857   Published: 1858
    An encyclopedia article by Engels.
  2. The First Indian War of Independence (1857-1858) and the East India Company (June-August 1853)
    Resource Type: Website
    First Published: 1857
    Articles by Marx and Engels on India 1853-1859.
  3. The Grundrisse 
    Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1857   Published: 1973
    Marx wrote this huge manuscript as part of his preparation for what would become A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (published in 1859) and Capital (published 1867). The series of seven notebooks were rough-drafted by Marx, chiefly for purposes of self-clarification, during the winter of 1857-8. The manuscript became lost in circumstances still unknown and was first effectively published, in the German original, in 1953.
  4. Mountain Warfare in the Past and Present
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1857
    The article was prompted by the Neuchâtel conflict and the plans for the invasion of Switzerland by Prussian troops, widely discussed in the press.
  5. Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations I
    The process which precedes the formation of the capital relation or of original accumulation

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1857
    Notes by Marx not intended for publication.
  6. Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations II
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1857
    Notes by Marx not intended for publication.

1856

  1. Speech at anniversary of the People's Paper
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1856
    The so-called revolutions of 1848 were but poor incidents - small fractures and fissures in the dry crust of European society. However, they denounced the abyss. Beneath the apparently solid surface, they betrayed oceans of liquid matter, only needing expansion to rend into fragments continents of hard rock.

1855

  1. Anti-Church Movement Demonstration in Hyde Park
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1855
  2. The Armies of Europe
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1855

1854

  1. Revolutionary Spain
    Articles by Karl Marx in the New-York Herald Tribune

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1854
    The series of articles Revolutionary Spain was written by Marx for the New-York Daily Tribune between August and November 1854. Marx observed all the symptoms of the revolutionary movement in Europe and paid much attention to the revolutionary events in the summer of 1854 in Spain. He held that the revolutionary struggle there could provide a stimulus for the development of the revolutionary movement in other European countries.

1853

  1. The British Rule in India
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1853
    England has broken down the entire framework of Indian society, without any symptoms of reconstitution yet appearing. This loss of his old world, with no gain of a new one, imparts a particular kind of melancholy to the present misery of the Hindoo, and separates Hindostan, ruled by Britain, from all its ancient traditions, and from the whole of its past history.
  2. The East India Company - Its History and Results
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1853
    Thus the British Government has been fighting, under the Company's name, for two centuries, till at last the natural limits of India were reached. We understand now, why during ail this time all parties in England have connived in silence, even those which had resolved to become the loudest with their hypocritical peace-cant, after the arrondissement of the one Indian Empire should have been completed. Firstly, of course, they had to get it, in order to subject it afterward to their sharp philanthropy.

1852

  1. Articles by Karl Marx in the New York Daily Tribune
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1852   Published: 1861
    In the early 1850's, Karl Marx (and Frederick Engels, though to a lesser extent) wrote a quantity of journalist news summaries about events in Europe for the New-York Daily Tribune. These articles were often reprinted in other papers: see Semi-Weekly Tribune, The Free Press, Das Volk, The People's Paper, Die Reform and Others.
  2. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1852
    Marx wrote The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon between December 1851 and March 1852. The "Eighteenth Brumaire" refers to November 9, 1799 in the French Revolutionary Calendar -- the day the first Napoleon Bonaparte had made himself dictator by a coup d'etat. Marx traces how the conflict of different social interests manifest themselves in the complex web of political struggles, and in particular the contradictory relationships between the outer form of a struggle and its real social content.
  3. Heroes of the Exile
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1852   Published: 1960
  4. Revelations Concerning the Communist Trial in Cologne
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1852
    Marx exposes the unseemly methods used by the Prussian police state against the communist movement.
  5. Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1852   Published: 1896

1851

  1. Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1851   Published: 1896

1850

  1. Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1850
  2. The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1850
    Originally a series of articles written between January and October 1850 specially for the Neue Rheinische Zeitung. Politisch-ökonomische Revue and published in it under the general title "1848-1849."
  3. England's 17th Century Revolution
    A Review of Francois Guizot's 1850 pamphlet Pourquoi la revolution d'Angleterre a-t-elle reussi?

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1850
    For Guizot, English history ends with the consolidation of the constitutional monarchy. For him, everything that follows is limited to a pleasant alternating game between Tories and Whigs. In reality, however, the consolidation of the constitutional monarchy is only the beginning of the magnificent development and transformation of bourgeois society in England. Where M. Guizot sees only gentle calm and idyllic peace, in reality the most violent conflicts and the most penetrating revolutions are taking place.
  4. Manifeste de l'Anarchie
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1850
    Le Manifeste est une intervention passionnante contre la folie politique que, sous le nom de démocratie, prétend que nous cédions nos droits à la liberté et à l'autonomie à des représentants élus pour qu'ils fassent ce qu'ils veulent.
  5. The Peasant War in Germany
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1850
    The Peasant War in Germany was the first history book to assert that the real motivating force behind the Reformation and 16th-century peasant war was socio-economic (class conflict) rather than "merely" religious.
  6. Reviews from the Neue Rheinische Zeitung Politisch-okonomische Revue
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1850
    The periodical's aims were to assess the results of the 1848-49 revolution, to reveal the nature of the new historical situation, and to develop further the party's tactics. Altogether six issues were published; the last issue, a double one (5-6),came out at the end of November 1850. All further attempts to continue publication were blocked by police persecution in Germany and lack of funds.

1849

  1. Civil Disobedience
    Originally published as "Resistance to Civil Government"

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1849
    An essay by Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849 which argues that people should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that people have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice. Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican-American War.
  2. The First Trial of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1849
  3. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1849
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1849
  4. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 8
    Marx and Engels 1848 - 1849

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1849
    Includes articles from the Neue Rheinische Zeitung November 8, 1848 - March 5, 1849.
  5. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 9
    Marx and Engels 1849

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1849
    Includes articles from the Neue Rheinische Zeitung March 6 - May 19, 1849.

1848

  1. Appeal to the Slavs
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1848
    When reaction conspires throughout Europe, when it works without stint, with the help of an organization slowly and carefully prepared, stretching all over the land, the revolution should create for itself a power capable of fighting it.
  2. Articles by Marx & Engels in Neue Rheinische Zeitung June 1848 - May 1849
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1848   Published: 1849
    Neue Rheinische Zeitung
  3. The Communist Manifesto 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1848
    Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as the theoretical and practical platform of the Communist League, a workers' association.
  4. The June Revolution
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1848
    The defeated plebeians are tormented by hunger, abused by the press, forsaken by the physicians, called thieves, incendiaries and galley-slaves by the respectabilities; their wives and children are plunged into still greater misery and the best of those who have survived are sent overseas.
  5. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1848
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1848
  6. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 6
    Marx and Engels 1845 - 1848

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1848
    Includes the Poverty of Philosophy and The Communist Manifesto.
  7. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 7
    Marx and Engels 1848

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1848
    Includes articles from the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, June 1 - November 7, 1848.
  8. On the Polish Question
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1848
    It is above all our Germany which ought to congratulate itself on this explosion of democratic passion in Poland. We are, ourselves, on the eve of a democratic revolution. enceforth the German people and the Polish people are irrevocably allied. We have the same enemies, the same oppressors.
  9. Revolution in Paris
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1848
    The bourgeoisie has made its revolution, it has toppled Guizot and with him the exclusive rule of the Stock Exchange grandees. Now, however, in the second act of the struggle, it is no longer one section of the bourgeoisie confronting another, now the proletariat confronts the bourgeoisie.

1847

  1. Article by Marx and Engels in Deutsche-Brusseler-Zeitung April 1847 - February 1848
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1847   Published: 1848
  2. Articles by Friedrich Engels in La Reforme October 1847 - March 1848
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1847   Published: 1848
  3. The Civil War in Switzerland
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1847
  4. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1847
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1847
  5. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 5
    Marx and Engels 1845 - 1847

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1847
    Includes The German Ideology.
  6. Moralising Criticism and Critical Morality
    A Contribution to German Cultural History Contra Karl Heinzen

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1847
  7. On the Question of Free Trade
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1847   Published: 1888
  8. The Poverty of Philosophy
    Answer to the Philosophy of Poverty by M. Proudhon

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1847
  9. Wage Labour and Capital
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1847   Published: 1891
    From Engels' 1891 introduction: "This pamphlet first appeared in the form of a series of leading articles in the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, beginning on April 4th, 1849. The text is made up of from lectures delivered by Marx before the German Workingmen’s Club of Brussels in 1847. The series was never completed. Marx, in the ’40s, had not yet completed his criticism of political economy. This was not done until toward the end of the fifties. Consequently, such of his writings as were published before the first installment of his Critique of Political Economy was finished, deviate in some points from those written after 1859, and contain expressions and whole sentences which, viewed from the standpoint of his later writings, appear inexact, and even incorrect."

1846

  1. The German Ideology
    Critique of Modern German Philosophy According to Its Representatives Feuerbach, B. Bauer and Stirner, and of German Socialism According to

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1846   Published: 1932
    Marx and Engels take on the "philosophic charlatanry" and pettiness and "parochial narrowness" of the pseudo-radicals of their time, "in particular the tragicomic contrast between the illusions of these heroes about their achievements and the actual achievements themselves."
  2. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1846
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1846

1845

  1. The Condition of the Working Class in England
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1845
  2. The Holy Family or Critique of Critical Criticism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1845
  3. The Late Butchery at Leipzig. The German Working Men's Movement
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1845
  4. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 4
    Marx and Engels 1844 - 1845

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1845
    Includes The Holy Family, or Critique of Critical Criticism, and The Condition of the Working-Class in England.
  5. Saint Max
    Chapter 3 of The German Ideology

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1845   Published: 1846
  6. The State of Germany
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1845   Published: 1846
  7. Theses On Feuerbach
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1845   Published: 1924

1844

  1. Antithesis of Capital and Labour. Landed Property and Capital
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  2. Beer Riots in Bavaria
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  3. The Condition of England
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  4. Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
    The struggle against religion is, therefore, indirectly the struggle against that world whose spiritual aroma is religion.
    Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.
    The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. The criticism of religion is, therefore, in embryo, the criticism of that vale of tears of which religion is the halo.
    Criticism has plucked the imaginary flowers on the chain not in order that man shall continue to bear that chain without fantasy or consolation, but so that he shall throw off the chain and pluck the living flower. The criticism of religion disillusions man, so that he will think, act, and fashion his reality like a man who has discarded his illusions and regained his senses
  5. Critique of Hegel's Philosophy in General
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  6. Description of Recently Founded Communist Colonies Still in Existence
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844   Published: 1845
    If the workers are united among themselves, hold together and pursue one purpose, they are infinitely stronger than the rich. And if, moreover, they have set their sights upon such a rational purpose, and one which desires the best for all mankind, as community of goods, it is self-evident that the better and more intelligent among the rich will declare themselves in agreement with the workers and support them.
  7. Economic & Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1844
    A series of notes written between April and August 1844 by Karl Marx. Not published by Marx during his lifetime, they were first released in 1927. The notebooks are an early expression of Marx's analysis of economics, chiefly Adam Smith, and critique of the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel. The notebooks cover a wide range of topics including private property, communism, and money. Because the 1844 manuscripts show Marx's thought at the time of its early genesis, their publication, in English not until 1959,[2] has profoundly affected recent scholarship on Marx and Marxism.
  8. Estranged Labour
    Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  9. Further Particulars of the Silesian Riots
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
    The causes of these affrays were the incredible sufferings of these poor weavers, produced by low wages, machinery, and the avarice and greediness of the manufacturers.
  10. Human Requirements and Division of Labour Under the Rule of Private Property
    Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  11. Karl Marx: Early Writings
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1844   Published: 1964
  12. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1844
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  13. Letters of Marx and Engels 1845
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  14. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 3
    Marx and Engels 1843 - 1844

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1844
  15. The Power of Money
    Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  16. Private Property and Communism
    Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  17. Private Property and Labour. Political Economy as a Product of the Movement of Private Property
    Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  18. Profit of Capital
    Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  19. Rent of Land
    Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  20. Wages of Labour
    Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844

1843

  1. Articles by Friedrich Engels in New Moral World October 1843 - November 1844
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1843   Published: 1844
  2. Articles by Friedrich Engels in The Northern Star December 1843 - December 1849
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1843   Published: 1849
  3. The Ban on the Leipziger Allgemeine Zeitung
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1843
    The German press begins the New Year with apparently gloomy prospects. The ban that has just been imposed on the Leipziger Allgemeine Zeitung in the states of Prussia is surely a sufficiently convincing refutation of all the complacent dreams of gullible people about big concessions in the future.
  4. Justification of the Correspondent from the Mosel
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1843
    The press is obliged to reveal and denounce circumstances, but I am convinced that it should not denounce individuals, unless there is no other way of preventing a public evil or unless publicity already prevails throughout political life so that the German concept of denunciation no longer exists.
  5. Letter: Karl Marx to Arnold Ruge
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1843
    Constructing the future and settling everything for all times are not our affair, it is all the more clear what we have to accomplish at present: I am referring to ruthless criticism of all that exists, ruthless both in the sense of not being afraid of the results it arrives at and in the sense of being just as little afraid of conflict with the powers that be.
    Therefore I am not in favour of raising any dogmatic banner. On the contrary, we must try to help the dogmatists to clarify their propositions for themselves.
  6. On The Jewish Question
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1843   Published: 1844

1842

  1. Articles by Marx & Engels in the Rheinische Zeitung April 1842 - March 1843
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842   Published: 1843
  2. Comments on The Latest Prussian Censorship Instruction
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    The real, radical cure for the censorship would be its abolition; for the institution itself is a bad one, and institutions are more powerful than people.
  3. Communism and the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    We are firmly convinced that it is not the practical Attempt, but rather the theoretical application of communist ideas, that constitutes the real danger; for practical attempts, even those on a large scale, can be answered with cannon as soon as they become dangerous, but ideas, which conquer our intelligence, which overcome the outlook that reason has riveted to our conscience, are chains from which we cannot tear ourselves away without tearing our hearts.
  4. Debates on the Law on Thefts of Wood
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    A deputy from the knightly estate mentioned that in the neighbourhood of Cleve many wood thefts took place merely in order to secure arrest and prison fare. Does not this deputy from the knightly estate prove precisely what he wants to refute, namely, that people are driven to steal wood by the sheer necessity of saving themselves from starvation and homelessness? Is this terrible need an aggravating circumstance?
  5. The Divorce Bill
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    In regard to marriage, the legislator can only establish when it is permissible to dissolve it, that is to say, when in its essence it is already dissolved. Juridical dissolution of marriage can only be the registering of its internal dissolution.
  6. The Leading Article in No. 179 of the Kölnische Zeitung
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    What are we to make of an article which disputes the right to its own existence, which prefaces itself with a declaration of its own incompetence?
  7. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 2
    Engels 1838 - 1842

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1842
  8. On Freedom of the Press (5)
    Censorship

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    A censorship law is an impossibility because it seeks to punish not offences but opinions, because it cannot be anything but a formula for the censor, because no state has the courage to put in general legal terms what it can carry out in practice through the agency of the censor. For that reason, too, the operation of the censorship is entrusted not to the courts but to the police.
  9. On Freedom of the Press (1)
    Prussian Censorship

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    Apart from the catchwords and commonplaces which fill the air, we find among these opponents of press freedom a pathological emotion, a passionate partisanship, which gives them a real, not an imaginary, attitude to the press, whereas the defenders of the press in this Assembly have on the whole no real relation to what they are defending. They have never come to know freedom of the press as a vital need. For them it is a matter of the head, in which the heart plays no part.
  10. On Freedom of the Press (2)
    Opponents of a Free Press

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    What an illogical paradox to regard the censorship as a basis for improving our press!
  11. On Freedom of the Press (3)
    On the Assembly of the Estates

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    Precisely because freedom of discussion, the speaker concludes, is desirable in our Assembly - and what freedoms would we not find desirable where we are concerned? - precisely for that reason freedom of discussion is not desirable in the province. Because it is desirable that we speak frankly, it is still more desirable to keep the province in thrall to secrecy.
  12. On Freedom of the Press (4)
    As a privilege of particular individuals or a privilege of the human mind?

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    From the standpoint of the idea, it is self-evident that freedom of the press has a justification quite different from that of censorship because it is itself an embodiment of the idea, an embodiment of freedom, a positive good, whereas censorship is an embodiment of unfreedom, the polemic of a world outlook of semblance against the world outlook of essence; it has a merely negative nature.
  13. On Freedom of the Press (6)
    Freedom in General

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    Some want a full censorship, others a half censorship; some want three-eighths freedom of the press, others none at all. God save me from my friends!
  14. On the Critique of the Prussian Press Laws
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    Two ways are open to the Prussian for the publication of his thoughts. He can either have them printed in his own country, in which case he has to submit to the domestic censorship; or, should he meet with objections here, outside the frontiers of his own state he can still either place himself under the censorship of another state in the Confederation or take advantage of press freedom in foreign countries. In any case the state retains the right to take repressive measures against possible breaches of the law.
  15. Un Canadien errant
    Resource Type: Unclassified
    First Published: 1842
    A Canadian folk song, lyrics written in 1842, about rebels who were deported, or forced to flee, after the rebellion of 1837-8 in Lower Canada. The song was also adopted by the descendants of Acadians who had been deported from Acadia in 1755-62, changed to 'Un Acadien errant.'
  16. Voyage en Icarie
    (excerpt)

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842

1839

  1. The People's Charter
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1839
    The Chartists' Peoples Charter of 1839.

1838

  1. The People's Petition
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1838
    The Chartist Petition of 1838.

1835

  1. Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 1
    Marx 1835 - 1843

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1835

1817

  1. Observations on the Effect of the Manufacturing System
    With Hints for the Improvement of Those Parts of it Which are Most Injurious to Health and Morals

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1817

1816

  1. A New View of Society
    Or, Essays on the Principle of the Formation of the Human Character, and the Application of the Principle to Practice

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1816

1813

  1. Queen Mab
    A Philosophical Poem (in 9 parts)

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1813

1812

  1. Manifiesto de Cartagena
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1812

1807

  1. The Phenomenology of Mind 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1807
    The birthplace and essence of Hegel's dialectic.

1803

  1. Letters from an Inhabitant of Geneva to His Contemporaries
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1803
    I think that all classes of society would be happy in the following situation: spiritual power in the hands of the scientists; temporal power in those of the proprietors; power to nominate those called upon to carry out the functions of the great leaders of mankind in the hands of everyone; the reward for those who govern is high esteem.

1792

  1. The Rights of Man
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1792
    Thomas Paine's defense of the French Revolution -- and the right to revolt.
  2. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
    With Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1792
    Published in 1792, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was the first great feminist treatise. Wollstonecraft preached that intellect will always govern and sought to persuade women to endeavour to acquire strength, both of mind and body.

1791

  1. Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizen
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1791
    Aware that women were being denied the new rights of liberty and property extended to all men by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, Gouges composed her own Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen, modeled on the 1789 document.

1789

  1. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1789
    Approved by the National Assemby of France August 26, 1789.
  2. The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1789   Published: 1996
    Olaudah Equiano's Narrative recounts his kidnapping in Africa at the age of eleven, his service as the slave of an officer in the British Navy, and his years of labour on slave ships until he was able to purchase his freedom in 1766. As a free man on a Central American plantation, he supervised slaves; increasingly disgusted by his co-workers, he returned to England in 177. In England he worked for the resettlement of blacks in Sierra Leone, married an Englishwoman, and became a leading and respected figure in the anti-slavery movement.

1788

  1. The Critique of Practical Reason
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1788

1787

  1. The Critique of Pure Reason
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1787
    According to Kant, "The first step in regard to the subjects of pure reason, and which marks the infancy of that faculty, is dogmatic. The second, which we have just mentioned, is sceptical, and it gives evidence that our judgement has been improved by experience. But a third step, such as can be taken only by fully matured judgment, based on assured principles of proved universality, is now necessary, namely to subject to examination, not the facts of reason, but reason itself, ... not the censorship but the criticism of reason, whereby not its present bounds but its determinate and necessary limits."

1783

  1. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1783   Published: 1950

1776

  1. Common Sense 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1776
    Thomas Paine's justification of revolution.
  2. Declaration of Independence
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1776
    The document in which the 13 American colonies declared their independence from Great Britain.
  3. Essay on the art of crawling, for the use of courtiers
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1776
    The courtier is, without contradiction, the most curious product of the human race. He's an amphibian animal in which all contrasts are commonly assembled.
  4. The Virigina Declaration of Rights
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1776
    Drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent natural rights of men, including the right to rebel against "inadequate" government. The Declaration was adopted unanimously by the Virginia Convention of Delegates on June 12, 1776.

1772

  1. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1772

1769

  1. On Religious Cruelty
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1769
    In this essay I am going to examine the different kinds of religious cruelty. Under this name I include those religious opinions that proceed from this cruelty or give birth to it, those acts of barbarism imposed by religion itself, and those its zealots take as an obligation occasioned by its service and love.

1754

  1. A Dissertation On the Origin and Foundation of The Inequality of Mankind and is it Authorised by Natural Law?
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1754

1656

  1. The Commonwealth of Oceana
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1656
    James Harrington's Common-Wealth of Oceana (1656) was based on universal land-ownership and was a militant republic dedicated to spreading its democratic system to the rest of the world. Harrington's well-meaning vision almost landed him in prison and Cromwell banned it.

1652

  1. The Law of Freedom in a Platform
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1652

1649

  1. An Agreement of the Free People of England
    Manifesto of the Levellers

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1649
    The Levellers were an informal alliance of agitators and pamphleteers who came together during the English Civil War (1642-1648) to demand constitutional reform and equal rights under the law. Levellers believed all men were born free and equal and possessed natural rights that resided in the individual, not the government. They believed that each man should have freedom limited only by regard for the freedom of others. They believed the law should equally protect the poor and the wealthy.
  2. Manifestos, Programs, Visions 
    Selected Manifestos - Political Statements - Programs

    Resource Type: Website
    First Published: 1649   Published: 2016
    A selection of left manifestos, programs, poltical statements and visions from the 1600s to today.
  3. The True Levellers Standard Advanced
    Or, The State of Community opened, and Presented to the Sons of Men

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1649
    Winstanley and 14 others published this pamphlet in which they called themselves the True Levellers to distinguish their ideas from the Levellers. Once they put their idea into practice and started to cultivate common land, they became known as "Diggers" by both opponents and supporters. The Diggers' beliefs were informed by Gerrard Winstanley's writings, which encompassed a worldview that envisioned an ecological interrelationship between humans and nature, acknowledging the inherent connections between people and their surroundings. Winstanley declared that "true freedom lies where a man receives his nourishment and preservation, and that is in the use of the earth".

1647

  1. An Agreement of the People for a firm and present peace upon grounds of common right
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1647
    Having by our late labours and hazards made it appear to the world at how high a rate we value our just freedom, and God having so far owned our cause as to deliver the enemies thereof into our hands, we do now hold ourselves bound in mutual duty to each other to take the best care we can for the future to avoid both the danger of returning into a slavish condition.
  2. An Agreement of the People of England, and the places therewith incorporated, for a secure and present peace, upon grounds of common right, freedom and safety
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1647   Published: 1649

1637

  1. The New English Canaan
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1637

1635

  1. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and seeking Truth in the Sciences
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1635

1628

  1. Petition of Right, 1628
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1628
    A document setting out the rights and liberties of the subject as opposed to the prerogatives of the crown.

1626

  1. The New Atlantis
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1626
    Tells of a "lost civilisation" that lives in perfect harmony and peace. Their society is dedicated to the accumulation of knowledge and the study of science and nature.

1550

  1. The Politics of Obedience
    The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1550   Published: 1997

1516

  1. Utopia
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1516

1450

  1. The Complaint of the Poor Commons of Kent
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1450
    A manifesto issued by Jack Cade, a Kentish rebel in 1450, before his march on London.

1217

  1. The Charter of the Forest
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1217   Published: 1225
    A complementary document to the Magna Carta of 1215, defining the rights of vassals, freemen, and serfs, reducing penalties, and restoring common land taken by the Crown.

1215

  1. The Magna Carta
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1215
    The Magna Carta consists of concessions wrung from the unwilling King John by his rebellious barons in 1215. It established for the first time a very significant constitutional principle: that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.