Title Index
Resources in the Connexions Library

Below are groups and resources (books, articles, websites, etc.) related to this topic. Click on an item’s title to go its resource page with author, publisher, description/abstract and other details, a link to the full text if available, as well as links to related topics in the Subject Index. You can also browse the Title, Author, Subject, Chronological, Dewey, LoC, and Format indexes, or use the Search box on the left.
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"L" Titles

  1. LA Sweatshops: Common Threads In Struggle
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1998
    Seeing how power is exercised by those who have it in this society opens one's eyes to the profound need for power on our side. You recognize the need to build organizational strength and resources. You come to see the need to inflict damage in order to budge those who hold the power. You realize that their ruthlessness knows no bounds. You learn that soft, liberal notions of hoping you can sit down and work it out in a civilized manner are out of this world.
  2. LA Teachers Face the Crisis
    Against The Current vol. 142

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Interview with UTLA activist. Against the Current interviewed a longtime activist and current leader in the United Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) about the impact of California’s devastating budget crisis on public services and on education in particular.
  3. LA Theses
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Notes on class struggles, conflicts and unification.
  4. The Labadie Collection
    Resource Type: Website
    The Labadie Collection was established in 1911 when Joseph Labadie, a prominent Detroit anarchist, donated his library to the University of Michigan. Although the Collection was originally concerned mainly with anarchist materials (the field in which it remains strongest), its scope was later widened considerably to include a great variety of social protest literature together with political views from both the extreme left and the extreme right. Materials are now collected from all parts of the world. In addition to anarchism, the Collection's strengths include: civil liberties (with an emphases on racial minorities), socialism, communism, colonialism and imperialism, American labor history through the 1930s, the IWW, the Spanish Civil War, sexual freedom, women's liberation, gay liberation, the underground press, and student protest.
  5. LaborNet
    Resource Type: Website
    Exists to build a democratic communication network for the labor movement.
  6. Labour
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
  7. Labour Advocacy and Research Association (L.A.R.A.)
    Organization profile published 1979

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1979
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
    The Labour Advocacy and Research Association provides general information for farm and domestic workers.
  8. The "Labor Aristocracy" and Working-Class Struggles: Consciousness in Flux, Part 2
    Against The Current vol. 124

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    Whatever the theoretical and empirical problems with the economics of the labor aristocracy thesis, its defenders still claim that well paid workers have generally been more reformist and conservative in their politics than lower paid workers. They point to the example of mostly white New York City construction workers ("hardhats") attacking antiwar demonstrators in the Spring of 1970; and contrast them with the militancy and progressive politics of some of the recent "Justice for Janitors" campaigns.
  9. The Labour Art and Media Working Group
    Organization profile published 1986

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1986
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  10. The Labour, Arts and Media Working Group
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1984
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  11. Labor at War or in the Tank?
    Against The Current vol. 145

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Steve Early is one of a small handful of extraordinarily keen-eyed observers who see things from within the shrinking world of U.S. organized labor — and who hold nothing back from readers.
  12. The Labour Companion
    A bibliography of Canadian labour history. Second edition.

    Resource Type: Database
    First Published: 1980   Published: 2015
    he Canadian Labour Bibliography was an initiative of the Committee on Canadian Labour History in the 1970s. The initial efforts to create an annual reading list of publications dealing with Canadian labour topics led to the creation of The Labour Companion: a bibliography of Canadian labour history based on materials printed from 1950 to 1975. Beginning in 1985, references for the second edition were gathered from libraries and archives, from bibliographies and footnotes, and through a systematic indexing of major Canadian periodicals. The Labour Companion (1980) contained 92 pages of citations; the current manuscript has grown since that time to approximately 760 pages.
  13. Labor Film Database
    Films, videos and film festivals that focus on work, workers and worker’s issues

    Resource Type: Website
    Over 1,700 films and videos are listed here, searchable by title, director, actors and/or keywords
  14. Labour Gains, Labour Pains
    50 Years of PC 1003

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1994
    This book is comprised of 4 parts: Historical Context, Origins and Evolution of the Fordist Accord, Case Studies, International Comparisons.
  15. Labour in an Affluent Society
    Resource Type: Article
    Put together by the Radical Education Project, this paper includes the following articles: "WILDCAT: anatomy of a work stoppage" by Steve Fox; "THE BRUNS STRIKE: a case study of student participation in labor" by C. Clark Kissinger; and "BLUE RIDGE: The History of the Levi Strike" by Brenda Mull.
  16. Labour in Newfoundland
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1991
  17. Labor in the Age of Climate Change 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Climate change must be stopped. But who will do the stopping? Who, in other words, could be the political subject of an anticapitalist climate revolution? Stefania Barca argues that this social agent could be, and indeed must be, the global working class. Yet to play this role, the working class must develop an emancipatory ecological class consciousness.
  18. Labor Law Won't Save Us
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    The strike is still labour's strongest weapon.
  19. Labour Left Out
    Canada's Failure to Protect and Promote Collective Bargaining as a Human Right

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2006
  20. Labor and the Locavore
    The Making of a Comprehensive Food Ethic

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2013
    Gray examines one of the most vibrant local food economies in the country, the Hudson Valley. Based on more than a decade's in-depth interviews with workers, farmers, and others, the author depicts how the currency of agrarian values can serve to mask the labour concerns of an already hidden workforce.
  21. Labour Martyr: Joe Hill
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1972
    The story of the rebel songwriter and union activst Joe Hill, who was murdered by the state of Utah in 1915.
  22. Labor & Monopoly Capital 
    The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, 25th Anniversary Edition

    Resource Type: Book
    This widely acclaimed work, first published in 1974, overturned the reigning ideologies of academic sociology and became the standard text for many basic areas of sociological inquiry.
  23. Labour movement
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    The term labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labour relations.
  24. The Labour Movement and Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1908
    Unions and political organizations each have their role in the struggle against capitalism.
  25. Labor on the Ropes
    Against The Current vol. 135

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    In U.S. Labor in Trouble and Transition, Kim Moody focuses on why the organized labor movement went into decline and points to potential signs of revival. The author’s explanation begins with the worsening economic situation in the 1970s and a harsher anti-union climate, both politically and in the workplace, as “business refined its ability to act as a class.”
  26. Labor Organizing Across Israel's Apartheid Line: An Interview with Israeli Labor Activist Yoav Tamir
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Yoav Tamir is an organizer with the new Israeli labour union, Workers Advice Center, or WAC-MANN. WAC-MAAN was founded in the late 1990s as (as its name might suggest) a workers' advice center, and began organizing unions and negotiating contracts in 2010. A product of both deepening austerity within Israel as well as the wave of uprisings in the Arab world in 2011, WAC-MAAN organizes both across the racial line and across the Green Line, doing what no other labor organization in Israel or Palestine's history has done: create a multi-ethnic, bi-national workers' movement.
  27. Labor Pains
    Inside America's New Union Movement

    Resource Type: Book
    An insider's account of the struggle to rebuild a vibrant and powerful trade union movement in the United States. It takes as its starting point the daily experience of a union organizer, and brings that experience to life.
  28. The Labor Party in the Big Picture
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1999
    THE LABOR PARTY convention was inspiring. At the Detroit chapter's report-back meeting, locked-out newspaper workers talked about how good it felt to be in a convention hall where everyone would support you, "unlike the Democrats and Republicans."
    Authorizing the possibility of electoral campaigns means that, in the places where those happen, we have the potential to attract a whole different layer of members.
  29. Labor Politics in Action, 1901-1911: The Union Labor Party of San Francisco
    Against The Current vol. 81

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1999
    In 1900 San Francisco had an organized labor movement that reflected the unique development of this metropolis of the West. San Francisco did not experience the slow and steady growth of Chicago and other cities of the plains, but became a city overnight in 1850 when thousands of gold seekers poured in from the East and every part of Europe, and beyond.
  30. Labor Scores at Verizon
    Against The Current vol. 89

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2000
    On August 6 87,000 members of the Communication Workers of America (CWA) and the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) struck Verizon Communications in twelve states from Maine to Virginia, and the District of Columbia. At the heart of the strike was the unions' attempt to maintain wall to wall unionization in an industry which is rapidly changing, to strengthen job security for workers in the wake of a national merger, and to fight the spread of lean production. The three-year contract we won represents a major victory on all of these issues.
  31. Labour Songs
    Resource Type: Audio
    First Published: 1991
    1950-1985.
  32. Labour Spies
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Labor spies are persons recruited or employed for the purpose of gathering intelligence, committing sabotage, sowing dissent, or engaging in other similar activities, typically within the context of an employer/labor organization relationship. Labor spying is most typically used by companies or their agents, and such activity often complements union busting.
  33. Labour Studies Index
    Resource Type: Database
    The Labour Studies Index is a searchable open-access index of recent publications in Canadian labour studies. It covers books, book chapters, journal articles, reviews, commissioned reports, and theses. As of October 2016, the Index offers 6534 citations of journal articles, books, book chapters, theses, and other literature.
  34. Labor Studies Under Siege
    Against The Current vol. 118

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2005
    More than a decade since the collapse of the Soviet Union, leftists are now more likely to be targeted by the right wing as "terrorists" than as "communists"—yet redbaiting is alive and well in the field of Labor Studies. In recent years, university labor programs have been attacked in the press for their teaching and research, and been targeted by university administrators for drastic budget reductions or elimination.
  35. The Labor Wars
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1973   Published: 1974
    A survey of landmark events in the U.S. labour movement.
  36. Labour WebRing: hub
    Resource Type: Website
    Featuring trade unions/trade unionists, labour/labor organizations and union activists worldwide.
  37. Labor's Bitter Defeat in Detroit, Book Review
    Resource Type: Unclassified
    First Published: 2013
    Review of The Broken Table: The Detroit Newspaper Strike and the State of American Labor by Chris Rhomberg.
  38. Labour's Day of Protest -- The Issues and the Press
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    An issue sheet examining the biases of the Canadian Press in its coverage of the Oct 14th national Day of Protest against wage and price control policies.
  39. Labor's Disaster at American Axle
    Against The Current vol. 137

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    The 87-day strike earlier this year at American Axle & Manufacturing (AAM) ended in a rout that has devastating implications for the organized U.S. labor movement. Begun on a snowy morning early February 26, the strike ended on May 22, a late spring day just before the Memorial Day weekend.
  40. Labor's Giant Step
    The First Twenty Years of the CIO: 1936–55

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1964   Published: 1972
    The story of the explosive labor struggles and political battles in the 1930s that built the industrial unions.
  41. Labour's lost leader
    The legacy of Tony Benn

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    From an interview to Tony Benn - sometime in the mid-1990s - his point of view about how broad and profound was the defeat of both trade unionism and the democratic socialist left over the previous decade.
  42. Labour's Side
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1981
    Labour's Side is a newsletter published four times a year by the Nova Scotia Labour Research and Support Centre "to inform our readers about labour struggles in the province."
  43. Labour's Side - Newsletter #7
    Periodical profile published 1980

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1980
  44. Labour's Side, #11
    Periodical profile published 1980

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1980
  45. LabourStart
    Resource Type: Website
    A major site with information about labour activities throughout the world.
  46. Labrador: Land Claims Run Aground
    Atlantic Issues, Vol. 3, No. 1

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
    The Indians of Labrador have been pressing land claims as have Native people in other parts of Canada.
  47. Labriola, Antonio
    Connexipedia: Entry in Encyclopedia of Marxism Glossary of People

    Resource Type: Article
    Italian philosopher and socialist, 1843-1904.
  48. The Lacemakers of Narsapur
    Indian Housewives Produce for the World Market

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1982
    This book offers a sensitive portrait of women in India and the conditions under which they work at home to produce luxury goods for the Western market. Maria Mies shows how this "cottage" industry is a permanent and ever more prevalent part of the process of primitive capital accumulation. By defining women as 'non-working housewives' a system has been created which makes possible rates of pay far below the levels necessary for the reproduction of the labour force.
  49. Lack of regulation behind West Virginia water disaster
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    A chemical spill at the Etowah River Terminal, near Charleston, West Virginia, resulted in nearly 300,000 people in the state losing access to drinkable water. Since then, several reports have been released detailing the decades-long lack of regulation by state or federal agencies of the site responsible.
  50. Lady beetle survey (Canadian Nature Federation)
    Resource Type: Website
  51. Lafargue, Paul
    Connexipedia: Entry in Encyclopedia of Marxism Glossary of People

    Resource Type: Article
    French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, literary critic, political writer and activist. (1842-1911).
  52. Lafargue, Paul - Writings - Index
    Resource Type: Article
    Writings of Paul Lafargue (1841-1911).
  53. Laing, R. D.
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness. (1927-1989).
  54. Lakeland Environmental and Agricultural Protection Society
    Organization profile published 1979

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1979
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
    Lakeland Environmental and Agricultural Protection Society (LEAPS) is largely an umbrella organization, with an initial membership of over 200 people involved in opposing the Cold Lake Oil Sands project as proposed by Imperial Oil.
  55. Lakota vow: dead or in prison before we allow the KXL pipeline
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    On February 2,7 2014 Oglala Lakota and American Indian Movement activists joined in a four-directions walk to commemorate Liberation Day, an event to mark the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee. As they do each year, four groups gather to the north, south, east and west and then walk eight miles until converging on top of Wounded Knee, where they honour the fallen warriors and the tribe’s rich history of resistance.
  56. LAM News (Legal Aid Manitoba)
    Periodical profile published 1976

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1976
    An underground paper dealing toung-in-cheek with the legal (aid) system.
  57. Lambert leaves CPA
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1992
  58. Lament for a Nation
    The Defeat of Canadian Nationalism

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1965
  59. Lament For a Patriarchy Lost? Anti-Feminism, Anti-Abortion and R.E.A.L. Women in Canada
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1987
  60. Lament for an Ocean
    The Collapse of the Atlantic Cod Fishery: A True Crime Story

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1998
    Harris's account of why and how the northern cod was taken to the brink of extinction in little more than thirty years.
  61. Lancet: an Open Letter for the People of Gaza
    The Massacre Must Stop

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    A public letter from doctors and scientists to stop the massacre.
  62. Land
    The Threatened Resources

    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 1977
    A filmstrip about land use issues in Canada.
  63. Land and Community 
    Crisis in Canada's Countryside

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1988
    Sim's thesis is that rural society is overlooked due to urban dependence upon "great associations," economies of scale, and other socio-cultural institutions of unmanageable size.
  64. The Land Bank Revisited
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1977
    A newsletter that records the 19th seminar held February 14, 1976 at Wesley United Church in Saskatoon on the Saskatchewan Land Bank. The seminar was held regarding the rampant increase in price of farm land in Saskatchewan.
  65. Land concentration, land grabbing and people's struggles in Europe
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    The hidden scandal of how a few big private business entities have gained control of ever-greater areas of European land. How these land elites have been actively supported by a huge injection of public funds -- at a time when all other public funding is being subjected to massive cuts.
  66. Land Conflict and Injustice
    Development in 'New India'

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    On agrarian crisis and the commercialization of the countryside in India.
  67. Land Day 2017: Israel's relentless land grab continues
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    As Israel resumes its settlement expansion with impunity, Palestinians have plenty to protest at this year's Land Day.
  68. Land, Food, Freedom
    Struggles for the Gendered Commons in Kenya

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2009
  69. Land, Freedom and Fiction
    History and Ideology in Kenya

    Resource Type: Book
    A unique exploration of the contrasting ways in which the Mau Mau struggle for land and independence was mirrored in the novels of settler writers, English authors at home, and subsequently indigenous Kenyan novelists. The author explores the relationships between historical events, the myths that are cultivated to serve particular social interests, and literary creation.
  70. The Land Grabbers 
    The New Fight over Who Owns the Earth

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2012
    How Wall Street, Chinese billionaires, oil sheikhs, and agribusiness are buying up huge tracts of land in a hungry, crowded world.
  71. Land Grabbing
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 2015
    Farmland is becoming more and more valuable and scarcer. Every year we lose about 12 billion hectares of farmland through soil sealing. After the financial meltdown in 2008 the global financial capital discovered the business segment of global farmland. Through land grabbing the rich of the world want to secure access to the world’s most important resources. Consequently, instead of farmers, profit is put before soil. If we don’t stop the raids, we will destroy our livelihood.
  72. 'Land Grabbing': exposing the impacts of large-scale agriculture on local communities
    Film review

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Agriculture is big business and with the EU pumping money at the sector, the corporate profiteers are holding all the aces. The documentary 'Land Grabbing' investigates what happens when well-financed agro-investors take over rural communities' land and water.
  73. The land is whose land? The Housing squeeze
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1982
  74. Land & Labour: Marxism, Ecology and Human History
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2014
    Explores humanity's contradictory relationship with the environment: our role in destroying nature, and our potential to for positive change.
  75. Land of Impunity
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    If the police can get away with killing Ian Tomlinson, there's no justice in Britain.
  76. The Land of Milk and Honey
    The National Report of the People's Food Commission

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1980
  77. The Land of Milk and Honey - The National Report of the People's Food Commission
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
  78. Land and Racism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    A look at the Jewish National Fund (JNF), an organization subsidized by Canadian taxpayers, and its exclusionary land policies.
  79. Land and seed laws under attack as Africa is groomed for corporate recolonization
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Across Africa, laws are being rewritten to open farming up to an agribusiness invasion - displacing millions of small cultivators and replacing them with a new model of profit-oriented agriculture using patented seeds and varieties.
  80. Land Study Committee Report
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
  81. Land Study Kit
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1988
  82. Land Tenure Problems and the Saskatchewan Land Bank
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1979
    This brief, presented to the People's Food Commission in Langenberg, Sask. examines the food issue from the perspective of the high cost of farm land.
  83. Land trust
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    There are two distinct definitions of a land trust: 1) a private, nonprofit organization that, as all or part of its mission, actively works to conserve land by undertaking or assisting in land or conservation easement acquisition, or by its stewardship of such land or easements Land Trust Alliance website, and 2) an agreement whereby one party (the trustee) agrees to hold ownership of a piece of real property for the benefit of another party (the beneficiary.
  84. Land Trusts: Land Held in Common
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1994
    With land trusts, we can ensure that the land is used the way we believe it should be used (or not used at all). With land trusts, we can ensure that human beings left behind in the race for corporate profits have a roof over their heads that no bureacrat or business interests can take away from them.
  85. Land Use
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    Critical examination of social concers in a way designed to strengthen discussion and action.
  86. Land Use and Occupancy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1977
    This news release makes reference to an Inuit Tapirisat-commissioned report on Inuit land use and occupancy in the Northwest Territories.
  87. Land Use or Land Abuse?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1977
    This Study Action Kit has been compiled to help the interested Canadians learn the facts about the nature, scope and urgency of the present land use situation in Canada. The materials are intended as a starting point for both study and action.
  88. Landless Peoples Movement
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    An independent social movement made up of the poor and landless in South Africa formed in 2001.
  89. Landless Workers' Movement
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Social movement in Brazil.
  90. Landless Workers' Movement on the True Origins of Brazil's Political Crisis
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Brazil's Landless Worker's Movement, MST, takes a profound look at Brazil's political crisis, how it affects the working class and how they must respond.
  91. Landmines still exacting a heavy toll on Vietnamese civilians
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    37 years on, unexploded bombs continue to ruin lives in the former wartime frontline regions of Vietnam.
  92. The Lands We Lost
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1974
    The Lands We Lost is a history of the cut-off lands and land losses from Indian reserves in British Columbia.
  93. Landsberg, Michele
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Canadian writer, social activist and feminist. (Born 1935).
  94. Landscapes of the Interior
    Re-explorations of Nature and the Human Spirit

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1996
  95. Landscaping With the Land
    Communities Restoring the Earth

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1992
    A collection of essays which describe 14 communities using alternative forms of development; to rebuild sustainable communities and environments.
  96. Langer, Felicia
    Connexipedia: Right Livelihood Award Winner

    Resource Type: Article
    Israeli human rights lawyer, winner of the Right Livelihood Award.
  97. Berta Langston, 1926-2010
    Against The Current vol. 147

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Berta Langston (1926-2010), a founder and member of Solidarity, died of lung cancer at age 84 in Norwalk, Connecticut on June 23. Born Berta Green on the Lower East Side of New York City, she was one of four sisters. She joined the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) in the mid-1940s and throughout nearly four decades of activity she was widely esteemed on the Left as one of the party’s most devoted and capable militants, a person who could work with sundry individuals to develop coalitions and political defense committees of national and international import. From time to time she used the party name “Berta Graham,” and she received a Marxist education at the “Trotsky School” at Mountain Spring Camp in New Jersey. During the mid-1960s she served briefly on the SWP National Committee.
  98. Language and Politics
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1998
    A series of previously unpublished interviews, spanning the twenty year period from 1968 to 1988, that looks at the connection between Chomsky's linguistic studies and his political analysis.For those who know Chomsky as media analyst and critic of foreign policy, this wide-ranging book offers glimpses of his studies on language, anarchist theory and critiques of radical politics.
  99. Language death
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A process that affects speech communities.
  100. The Language of Empire
    Abu Ghraib and the American Media

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2005
    A study of how and why the torture of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib was white-washed by the American media.
  101. Language Wars
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Issues of language are examined, in particular the maintenance of power by a linguistic or political majority through imposition of linguistic norms and beliefs on a minority.
  102. Lanlord sues tenant
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1990
  103. Lantana Non-profit Homes Corporation
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  104. Laos After the Bombs
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    From 1964 to 1973, the US dropped two million tons of bombs on Laos. The horrendous effects are still being felt.
  105. LAPD Chickens Come Home to Roost
    Why I'm More Scared of the Cops Than I Am of Christopher Dorner

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
  106. Lappé, Frances Moore
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Activist and writer on food, hunger, economics, and democracy. (Born 1944).
  107. Lappé, Frances Moore
    Connexipedia: Right Livelihood Award Winner

    Resource Type: Article
    Activist and writer on food, hunger, economics, and democracy. (Born 1944).
  108. Larkin, James
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Irish trade union leader and socialist activist. (1876-1947).
  109. The Last American Newspaper
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Nostalgia is a particularly Bostonian pastime, and now almost anyone who ever set foot in that city over the past half-decade has another trigger for melancholy. The Boston Phoenix is dead, boys and girls. The Phoenix wasn’t merely the newspaper where I worked in my thirties. It was the place that gave me the time, space and freedom to evolve into who I would become for the rest of my life.
  110. The last battle of Laxmi Panda
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Rural Indians were both the foot soldiers of freedom and the leaders of some of the greatest anti-colonial uprisings ever seen. Countless thousands of them sacrificed their lives to rid India of British rule. And many who lived through great suffering to see a free India were mostly forgotten soon after. From the 1990s onwards, p. Sainath recorded the lives of several of the last living freedom fighters.
  111. A Last Chance for the World's Forests?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    An alarming new study has shown that the world’s forests are not only disappearing rapidly, but that areas of 'core forest' -- remote interior areas critical for disturbance-sensitive wildlife and ecological processes -- are vanishing even faster.
  112. Last Chance to Save Windy Bay
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1988
  113. The Last Codfish
    Life and Death of the Newfoundland Way of Life

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1993
  114. Last Frontier
    Local communities fight mineral exploration and eviction in the Andes

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Afro-descendant communities in Colombia are fighting to retain control of their ancestral goldmines in the face of pressure from private interests.
  115. The Last Frontier
    Fighting Over Land in the Amazon

    Resource Type: Book
    This richly detailed study of the Amazon region spells out the mismanagement, corruption, and resulting chaos and brutality of successive Brazilian government development schemes. The present situation in the Amazon and how it came about are vividly portrayed, often in the words of the people interviewed. We learn of the problems and resistance of the indigenous peoples, the conflicts between landowners and peasants, and the ecological damage large scale ranching and mining are causing.
  116. Last Harvest
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 2014
    Last Harvest follows the riveting journey of an elderly Chinese farming couple whose relocation is imminent as a result of China's controversial South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest of its kind in the world. Wang captures a remarkable and engaging human story at the intersection of connection and disconnection from land and culture and of old and new China.
  117. The Last Jews in Berlin
    Powerful true story of the men and women who lived and survived in the dark heart of the Nazi Holocaust

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1982   Published: 1983
  118. The Last Post Files: Fighting subversion or protecting the government from embarrassment?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    The Last Post was one of the best alternative publications of the 1970s. While the small team of journalists was creating solid investigative journalism, the RCMP Security Service was keeping a close watch. One of its aims? Protect the government from embarrassment.
  119. The Last Refuge
    Neve Gordon and the Boycott of Israel

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Let us admit the truth: The occupier deserves to be boycotted. As long as the Israelis pay no price for the occupation, the occupation will not end, and therefore the only way open to the opponents of the occupation is to take concrete means that will make the Israelis understand that the injustice they are perpetrating comes with a price tag.
  120. Last Resorts
    The Cost of Tourism in the Caribbean

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2005
    Examines the real impact of tourism on the people and landscape of the Caribbean. It explores the structure of ownership of the industry and shows that the benefits it brings to the region do not live up to its claims.
  121. Last Sparks From Tahrir Square
    Tahrir Square Died, But Not the Revolution

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Once again, the prisons of Egypt are full. The hospitals are overflowing with injured men and women. But the fight, the ‘process’ goes on; it is not dying. Tahrir Square died, but the revolution is getting stronger.
  122. Last Stand
    A Riveting Expose of Environmental Pillage and a Lone Journalist's Struggle to Keep Faith

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1992
    The author describes his confrontation with big business, examining the clash between nature and consumer society.
  123. Last Stand of the Lubicon Cree
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1991
  124. The last word (Diemer)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    The movement has no need of self-appointed or any other kind of saviours, not even well-intentioned anarchist ones.
  125. Last Words to the Nation
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1973
    This speech was delivered at 9:10 am on September 11, 1973, in the midst on an ultimately successful US-sponsored coup d'etat against the democratically-elected government. Barricaded inside La Moneda, the presidential palace, President Allende gave his life defending Chilean democracy.
  126. The Lasting Legacy of Florynce Kennedy, Black Feminist Fighter
    Against The Current vol. 152

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    Several decades after the 1960s political upheavals, very few people recognize the name of the Black feminist lawyer and activist Florynce “Flo” Kennedy (1916-2000). However, during the late 1960s and 1970s Kennedy was the country’s most well-known Black feminist. When reporting on the emergence of the women’s movement, the media covered her early membership in the National Organization for Women (NOW), her leadership of countless guerilla theatre protests and her work as a lawyer helping to repeal New York’s restrictive abortion laws. Indeed, Black feminist Jane Galvin-Lewis and white feminists Gloria Steinem and Ti-Grace Atkinson credit Kennedy with helping to educate a generation of young women about feminism in particular and radical political organizing more generally.
  127. The Late Butchery at Leipzig. The German Working Men's Movement
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1845
  128. The Late Great Lakes
    An Environmental History

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1986
    Ashworth presents five common misunderstandings about the Great Lakes and advocates for improvements, remedial action and ecosystem strategies.
  129. Latest Corbyn Hit-Piece: He earns MP's Salary
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    If I hadn’t seen for myself that this article "exposing" Jeremy Corbyn was published on the Daily Telegraph’s website, I would have assumed it was a spoof from The Onion – an even more preposterous one than normal.
  130. Latin America
    Peace, Democratization and Economic Crisis

    Resource Type: Book
    Wars between countries in Latin and Central America may be rare, but peace in the region is a fragile hostage both to economic crisis and repressive regimes, and Cold War conflicts and U.S. intervention. This book, which represents the views of leading Latin American scholars, explores the links between economic, military, and human rights issues and poses the question of possible solutions.
  131. Latin America after Neoliberalism
    Turning the Tide in the 21st Century?

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2007
    A primer on the social and economic changes sweeping across contemporary Latin America. The region is an epicentre of dissent from neoliberal ideas and resistance to U.S. economic and political dominance.
  132. Latin America and Asia Are at Last Breaking Free of Washington's Grip
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    Chomsky discusses the growing independence of these regions from US domination.
  133. Latin America and Caribbean INSIDE REPORT
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1977
    Report to raise the conciousness of citizens to the political-economic-social situation in Canada and Latin America.
  134. Latin America: A Conservative Restoration?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    After a decade of the left's near-hegemonic control over government structures throughout Latin America, previously discredited conservative politicians who favour a return to the capitalist neoliberal polices of privatization and austerity are staging a comeback.
  135. Latin America Declares Independence
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    After centuries of foreign domination, South America is rising to shed the dependencies of North America on the continent's resources, markets, and investment opportunities.
  136. Latin America Information Group
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
  137. Latin America: Reform or Revolution
    A Reader

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1968   Published: 1969
  138. Latin America Revolution
    Resource Type: Book
  139. Latin America Solidarity Committee
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
  140. Latin America The Liberation of Latin America
    New Internationalist May 2003

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 2003
    A look at the issues which have surrounded Latin America and what is changing.
  141. Latin America to Iraq: Greg Grandin's Empire's Workshop
    Against The Current vol. 125

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    The decade of the '70s was not good for U.S. imperialism. The American defeat in Southeast Asia led to the development of the “Vietnam syndrome” and with it the reluctance to use U.S. troops in wars abroad.
  142. Latin America: Underdevelopment or Revolution
    Essays on the Development of Underdevelopment and the Immediate Enemy

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1969   Published: 1970
    It is the colonial structure of world capitalism, in Frank's view, which produced and maintains the underdevelopment characteristic of Latin America and the rest of the Third World.
  143. Latin America: Undervelopment or Revolution
    Essay on the Development of Undervelopment and the Immediate Enemy

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1969
  144. Latin America: Women in History - More than Just Heroines
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Women in Latin American struggles.
  145. The Latin American City
    Resource Type: Book
    Looks at the region's urban explosion from the perspective of the poor.
  146. Latin American Connexions
    Periodical profile published 1992

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1992
  147. Latin American coups upgraded
    These days the military go back to their barracks

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    The classic Latin American coup used to put the military in direct command and control of a country. That doesn’t work well on the world stage, and is being replaced by more clever manipulation, however the same people end up in power.
  148. Latin American Information Group
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
    The Latin American Information Group (LAIG) does solidarity and public education work on Latin American issues in the Halifax area.
  149. Latin American Mission Group
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  150. Latin American Mission Program
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1981
    This group of ex-missioners (to the Dominican Republic) is committed to sharing their third world learnings and experience with P.E.I. residents and local struggling groups.
  151. Latin American Mission Program
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1981
    The Latin American Mission Program (L.A.M.P.) was established in the late sixties by the Catholic Diocese of Charlottetown.
  152. Latin American progressives and environmental duplicity
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Left wing governments across the Americas are faced with a dilemma - high social spending programs financed by income from destructive mining and hydrocarbon extraction - or a slower but sustainable development path that puts ecology, equity and justice first. Their answer - a constant pushing back of the resource frontier.
  153. Latin American Working Group
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
  154. The Latin Americanization of U.S. Police Forces
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    A call to white Americans to unite with suppressed minorities who are incarcerated daily, killed in the streets, and who hold little political power against these militarized police forces.
  155. Latin America's Pink Tide
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    Current governments in Latin America – not quite red and hardly cresting the wave – are discovering that policies of redistribution, for which they were elected, now have limits.
  156. Latin America's Social Policies Have Given Women a Boost
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Although they do not specifically target women, social policies like family allowances and pensions have improved the lives of women in Latin America, the region that has made the biggest strides so far this century in terms of gender equality.
  157. Latitude 53
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1986
  158. Lattimer massacre
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    The killing of 19 unarmed striking immigrant anthracite coal miners at the Lattimer mine near Hazleton, Pennsylvania, on September 10, 1897, by a sheriff's posse.
  159. Laughing at the People of Walmart While Class Warfare Rages in America
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    What is it that POW and the TSG are really selling? Conformity, my friends. You there, in your comfortable suburban house or your hipster urban condo pad, yes, you are one of the cool people. You’d never be caught dead out in public dressed like one of these freaks.
  160. Laughing on the Way to Armageddon
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Roberts argues that he real threat is not from foreign powers like Russia, but from corruption and power games within US politics, and the military/security complex that truly undermine democracy.
  161. Laura Flanders talks to Gar Alperovitz about What Then Must We Do?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Alperovitz says we may be witnessing the prehistory of the next American Revolution.
  162. Lavell, Jeannette Vivian Corbiere
    Connexipedia: Article in Library and Archives Canada

    Resource Type: Article
    Native women's rights activist. (Born 1942).
  163. Law and the wives of others
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    How does a modern, plural democratic society deal with the desire of some minority groups to observe cultural norms at odds with the law of the land?
  164. The law-breaking MLA
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2002
    Alberta MLA plans to break the law.
  165. The Law of Freedom in a Platform
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1652
  166. Law Professor's Response to Black Lives Matter Shirt Complaint
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    A first year law school student wrote a complaint about her professor having worn a Black Lives Matter T-shirt during class. Here is the professor’s response.
  167. The Law Union News
    Periodical profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1982
    The Law Union of Ontario is a group of "socialist and progressive lawyers, law students and legal worker" that attempts to document in justices and mistreatment of people within the current legal system.
  168. The Law Union News
    Periodical profile published 1977

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1977
    Monthly newspaper reports on the activities and interests of the Toronto Law Union.
  169. Law Union News
    Periodical profile published 1980

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1980
  170. Law Union News
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
    A report on the activities of the Law Union, a group of socialist and progressive lawyers, law students and legal workers.
  171. Law Union of Ontario
    Organization profile published 1984

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1984
  172. LAWG Letter
    Vol.V, No.6. Food Aid: Blessed Are the Givers

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1978
    Inactive/Defunct Periodical
    An article that critically analyses the reasons for the admitted failure of the Canadian International Development Agency's quarter of a billion annual food aid program in the Third World while hunger continues to grow. The reason suggested for both is the same, namely, that it "blesses the giver far more than the receiver."
  173. LAWG Letter: Guatemala, Vol.5, No. 1.
    Periodical profile published 1978

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1978
    Inactive/Defunct Periodical
  174. Lawlessness is the New Normal
    The Lust for Washington's Money

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    No country has been willing to stand up to Washington and to give Snowden asylum.
  175. Lawrence textile strike
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A strike of immigrant workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1912 led by the Industrial Workers of the World. The strike is often known as the "Bread and Roses" strike, or, "The Strike for Three Loaves".
  176. Laws Unto Themselves
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    A frequent criticism of “free trade” agreements is that corporations are elevated to the level of a country. It might be more accurate to say that corporations are elevated above countries.
  177. Lawson, James
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Theoretician and tactician of nonviolence within the American Civil Rights Movement. (Born 1928).
  178. Lawsuit Against Google Highlights Mining of Student Data
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Children have become lucrative targets for data mining companies, according to a study by Politico magazine. Just weeks after Google settled a lawsuit for selling student data for advertising, the publication revealed an entire industry devoted to marketing data gathered from Internet applications offered to students and their teachers.
  179. Lawsuit Against Google Highlights Mining of Student Data
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Children have become lucrative targets for data mining companies, according to a study by Politico magazine. Just weeks after Google settled a lawsuit for selling student data for advertising, the publication revealed an entire industry devoted to marketing data gathered from Internet applications offered to students and their teachers. Many modern software companies offer free tools to everyone like email, games and search engines that come with strings attached. Google is perhaps the best known because it offers students an entire suite of applications from calendars to chat services and data storage. In return the company has made money by selling personal information gleaned from users for targeted advertising.
  180. Lawyers and the Nuclear Debate
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1988
  181. Lawyers in EU draw up list of alleged IDF war criminals
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Lawyers in a number of European countries are collecting information on Israeli soldiers who are implicated in war crimes.
  182. Laxer, James
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Canadian political economist, professor and author. (Born 1941).
  183. Laxer, Robert
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Canadian psychologist, professor, author, and political activist. (1915-1998).
  184. Laying the Children's Ghosts to Rest
    Canada's Home Children in the West

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2014
    Between 1869 and the early 1930s more than 100,000 children were rounded up from the streets of Britain to be used as labourers in Canadian homes; often little more than slaves. Today there are two million or more descendants of what were derisively known in Canada as 'home children'. Writer and journalist Sean Arthur Joyce was shocked to learn in middle age that he was one of those descendants.
  185. Laying the Groundwork for Change
    A Review of Michael Riordon, Our Way to Fight: Peace-Work Under Siege in Israel-Palestine.

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    Michael Riordon's new book (published in Toronto by Pluto Press/Between the Lines, 2011, 242 pages) explores what a just peace between Israel and Palestine might look like and how it might be built. It does so by describing the work of a wide range of NGOs and movements, both Palestinian and Israeli, involved in a non-violent struggle for peace and/or justice.
  186. Layoffs at CRIAW
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1989
  187. Lazy Journalists are the Darlings of the Corporations
    Indian Country and the Lessons of McCarthyism

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Lazy journalists are great friends of the corporations. They are known as "armchair journalists" because they sit in comfort and rewrite press releases from politicians and corporations. To spice it up a bit, they dial a few numbers, get a few comments and call it a news story. They are the "darlings of the energy companies," as Buffy Sainte Marie says.
  188. Lead poisoning - fighting industrial pollution in Kenya is a dangerous business
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Lead poisoning from industrial pollution has imposed a terrible toll on Kenyans, and single mother Phyllis Omido is no exception -- lead from a nearby metal refinery badly damaged her own son's health. But it was when she decided to fight back against the polluters that a whole new realm of threats and dangers opened up.
  189. Leader and Vassal
    Bringing Death and Destruction to Muslims

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    Americans do not think of themselves or of Israel as terrorist states, but the evidence is complete and overwhelming. Thanks to the power of the Israel Lobby, Americans only know the Israeli side of the story, which is that evil anti-semite Palestinians will not let blameless Israelis live in peace and persist in their unjustified terror attacks on an innocent Israeli state.
  190. Leadership and Democracy
    Against The Current vol. 86

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2000
    I am grateful to Fred Bustillo for the opportunity to expand on the necessarily brief comments on political leadership in my review of Daniel Singer's Whose Millennium? (Against the Current 82, September-October 1999). If we consider the working class and its allies, not abstractly and schematically but in concrete historical and political terms, we find that they do not constitute homogeneous social forces, nor are they likely to become homogeneous even on the eve of revolution. In other words, these social groups are and will likely remain uneven, whether in terms of political consciousness or organizational experience, and with divergent but reconcilable interests.
  191. Leadership for Change
    Toward a Feminist Model

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1989
  192. Leadership for Change
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1978
    Traditional, "patriarchal" leadership is compared to "feminist" or shared leadership in groups. Tactics for changing leadership syle are described.
  193. Leadership in housing
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1990
  194. The Leading Article in No. 179 of the Kölnische Zeitung
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1842
    What are we to make of an article which disputes the right to its own existence, which prefaces itself with a declaration of its own incompetence?
  195. Leading Principles of Marxism: A Restatement 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1937
    Marx's study of society is based upon a full recognition of the reality of historical change. Marx treats all conditions of existing bourgeois society as changing, ie more exactly, as conditions in the process of being changed by human actions. Bourgeois society is not, according to Marx, a general entity which can be replaced by another stage in a historical movement. It is both the result of an earlier phase and the starting point of a new phase, of the social class war which is leading to a social revolution.
  196. The Leading Terrorist State
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    "It's official: The U.S. is the world's leading terrorist state, and proud of it." That should have been the headline for the lead story in The New York Times on Oct. 15, which was more politely titled "CIA Study of Covert Aid Fueled Skepticism About Helping Syrian Rebels."
  197. Leadville Colorado, Miners' Strike
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Occurred as a result of rapid industrialization and consolidation of the mining industry.
  198. Leaf Blower Facts
    Resource Type: Article
  199. League for Social Reconstruction
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A circle of Canadian socialist intellectuals formed in 1931 by academics advocating radical social and economic reforms and political education.
  200. League for Social Reconstruction
    Connexipedia: Article in the Canadian Encyclopedia

    Resource Type: Article
    Organization of left-wing intellectuals, founded 1931-32 in Montréal and Toronto.
  201. League of Revolutionary Black Workers
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
  202. League on Rights and Freedom Information Sheet
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1979
    This information sheet, published by the League on Rights and Freedom (formerly the League on Human Rights), reveals that two Québec citizens are prosecuting the RCMP and some security officers for unlawfully subjecting them to illegal investigations following their refusal to "collaborate."
  203. Leak Ties Ethics Guru to Three Men Charged in FIFA Scandal
    Secret documents show how deeply the world of soccer has become enmeshed in the world of offshore havens

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Four of the 16 FIFA officials indicted in the United States used offshore companies created by Mossack Fonseca. Files show offshore companies used by some soccer players to hold money from image rights deals. Offshore revelations extend beyond soccer to other sports including hockey and golf.
  204. Leaked Documents Expose Global Companies' Secret Tax Deals in Luxembourg
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Pepsi, IKEA, FedEx and 340 other international companies have secured secret deals from Luxembourg, allowing many of them to slash their global tax bills while maintaining little presence in the tiny European duchy, leaked documents show.
  205. Leaked Records Reveal Offshore Holdings of China's Elite
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Close relatives of China's top leaders have held secretive offshore companies in tax havens that helped shroud the Communist elite's wealth, a leaked cache of documents reveals.
  206. Leaked TTIP papers reveal 100% corporate sellout
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Secret documents leaked to Greenpeace from the EU-US TTIP negotiations show that environmental protection, climate change mitigation, consumer protection, public health and sustainability are sacrificed throughout to corporate profit and commercial interests.
  207. Leamington, Ontario: Growing Tomatoes in the Era of Free Trade
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Southwestern Ontario is the historic home of Canadian tomato growers. The bulk of the crop goes to processing, and since 1909 the dominant corporation had been H. J. Heinz, a food giant based in Pittsburgh. But in 2013 the Heinz Corporation was bought by Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway (26%) and 3G Capital (51%), based in Brazil. It was soon announced that they were planning to close their plant in Leamington. The story has been a snapshot of what has happened to the manufacturing industry in Ontario following the "free trade" agreements with the United States.
  208. Lean & Mean Health Care
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Chern examines the Affordable Care Act from the perspective of being an industry and how this will regulate, standardize, and consolidate the healthcare system.
  209. The Leap Manifesto
    A Call for a Canada Based on Caring for the Earth and One Another

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    We start from the premise that Canada is facing the deepest crisis in recent memory. so we need to Leap.
  210. A Leap Toward Radical Politics?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    The Leap Manifesto is, in a way, Canada's version of the burst of Left and socialist energies that have come with the Bernie Sanders campaign in the Democratic Party in the U.S. and the Jeremy Corbyn leadership win in the Labour Party in Britain. As with these, the explosion of popular interest reflects general disquiet about the limits of recent protests demanding changes from the state but having no strategy to transform it, on the one hand; and disappointments with electoral politics and social democratic parties that only seem to reinforce neoliberalism, on the other.
  211. Leaping Lesbians
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1986
  212. Learn from Malcolm X
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    It's time to re-learn lessons from Malcolm in the Black community - nationalism and pride, solidarity and militancy, and a worldview that African Americans are part of a global community in struggle against the injustices of capitalism.
  213. Learning Activism
    The Intellectual Life of Contemporary Social Movements

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2015
    What do activists know? Learning Activism is designed to encourage a deeper engagement with the intellectual life of activists who organize for social, political, and ecological justice.
  214. Learning for the Revolution
    A review of 'Schooling for "Good Rebels": Socialist Education for Children in the United States, 1900-1920'

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1997
    Socialist sunday schools were part of a thriving radical culture which included daily newspapers, clubs, lectures, festivals and parades.
  215. Learning from Autonomous Marxism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2004
  216. Learning from our History
    Ernie Tate's Memoir of His Early Years

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Richard Fidler reviews political activist Ernest Tate's two volume Revolutionary Activism in the 1950s and 60s: Ernest Tate, A Memoir.
  217. Learning from our History
    Community Development by Immigrant Women in Ontario 1958 - 1986

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1986
  218. Learning from Vienna
    Resource Type: Article
    The city housing program was the work of the Vienna social-democratic movement, based on the city's unions. At the end of World War I, Vienna had lost direct access to its markets in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Because Austria now had to export to the world market, the Austrian unions faced a difficult task if they tried to raise wages to enable workers to afford high rents. Faced with becoming uncompetitive, Austrian employers would put up a stiff fight and some might go bankrupt. This led the social-democrats to develop a strategy for improving workers' standard of living by lowering rents.
  219. Learning how to live with editors
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1998
    Pay attention to editorial fit, readership relevance, and good writing.
  220. Learning to struggle: my story between workerism and feminism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    An account of an Italian Marxist feminist's experiences and development in the autonomist and feminist movements in Italy in the 1970s.
  221. Learnxs
    Organization profile published 1979

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1979
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
    A non-profit community organization in support of innovative and experimental programs in community education.
  222. Leave most fossil fuels in the ground, or fry
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    For the world to meet its climate goals, a third of the world's oil, half its gas and 80% of its coal must stay underground.
  223. Leave the libraries alone. You don't understand their value.
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    I love the public library service for what it did for me as a child and as a student and as an adult. I love it because its presence in a town or a city reminds us that there are things above profit, things that profit knows nothing about, things that have the power to baffle the greedy ghost of market fundamentalism, things that stand for civic decency and public respect for imagination and knowledge and the value of simple delight.
  224. Leaving the 20th Century
    The Incomplete Work of the Situationist International

    Resource Type: Book
    Published: 1974
    An anthology of Situationist writings.
  225. Lebanon
    Dynamics of Conflict

    Resource Type: Book
    In this clear delineation of the major forces at work in Lebanon, the author unravels the causes of the 1975-76 Civil War and relates them to subsequent events, including the Israeli invasion and its aftermath. Rejecting simplistic notions like 'Muslim vs. Christian,' he examines the complex contending forces, and the economic and political underpinnings which have given rise to them.
  226. LeBourdais, Isabel
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Canadian journalist and author. (1909-2003).
  227. Lectures on Liberation
    Resource Type: Book
  228. Lectures on Philosophy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1932   Published: 1933
  229. The Left Alternative 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2009
    Unger writes a manifesto that engages a vital question of our time: where should the Left go from here? In his analysis, Unger examines the major debates in the world today and he rallies for alternative forms of change.
  230. The Left & Disability
    Against The Current vol. 115

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2005
    I joined “the crips” 13 years ago, upon being forced to quit work due to toxic exposure at my workplace. “The crips” are not a group you really fight to get into, but they can have excruciating initiation rites, worse than to get into “Skull and Bones.” And you don’t have to come from a rich family; in fact, membership almost always insures that you become poor, and very quickly!
  231. The Left and the Elections
    Against The Current vol. 110

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2004
    Two electoral paths will be taken by those left of center this year, and all the spilled ink in the world won't affect the choices.
  232. The Left and the Jihad
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    The left was once the principal enemy of radical Islamism. So how did old enemies become new friends?
  233. Left at the Post
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1970
  234. Left Behind by Good Friday 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    In 1969 Bernadette Devlin traveled to the United States on a fundraising tour. At age twenty-two, she was the youngest woman ever elected to Westminster and already a veteran of the Northern Irish Civil Rights Movement and the radical student group People's Democracy.
  235. Left Communism and Trotskyism: A Roundtable
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2007
  236. The Left and the EU
    Why Cling to This Reactionary Institution?

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Why is it that many people who consider themselves left-wing have such difficulty grasping that the EU is a deeply reactionary institution? The mere fact that those running the EU present it as an internationalist venture dedicated to the creation of a world free of nationalist enmities does not make it so. If we want to examine the EU in its proper light, then we should ignore the high-flown rhetoric in which its supporters indulge, and consider its actual record. And what is the record of the EU, once we penetrate the obfuscatory rhetoric about ‘internationalism’ that surrounds EU policy? Without a doubt, that record is one that should cause those on the left now defending it acute embarrassment, as it starkly contradicts the ideals that the left has always claimed to uphold.
  237. Left Green Meeting
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1990
  238. Left Gun Nuts
    Opposition to Gun Control Comes from Many on the Left Also. Here's Why They're Wrong

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    In the aftermath of the Isla Vista massacre, we can expect the far Right to vehemently oppose any renewed call for gun control. They will tout the supposedly Constitutional right of Americans to keep and bear arms.
  239. Left History Archive
    Resource Type: Website
    An attempt to gather together an archive of digital material of the history and political role of the Communist Party of Australia from its inception to the present day, and also a general archive of documents and articles that are relevant to national and international struggle.
  240. The Left and Immigration
    A Major Challenge for a Different Vision of the European Union

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    After the latest drama in Lampedusa, where more than 350 immigrants, mostly Eritreans, perished 600 metres from the Italian coast, the immigration policies of the European Union and its member states are more than ever under scrutiny.
  241. The Left in British Columbia
    A History of Struggle

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2013
    This comprehensive history of the left in British Columbia from the late nineteenth century to the present explores the successes and failures of individuals and organizations striving to make a better world.
  242. Left-libertarianism
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Published: 2010
    A doctrine that has a strong commitment to personal liberty and egalitarianism.
  243. Left Nationalism and Working Class Communism
    A Review of the Iranian Experience

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1987
    No amount of theoretical and political radicalisation can in itself change the social character of present-day communism and bridge the gulf that separates it from the working class. What is needed, if the proletarian communism of the Communist Manifesto is to become a reality, is a real social shift. Communism must be taken back from all those who employed it throughout the twentieth century to reform capitalism, and returned to the working class to be used against capital, for real human emancipation. A worker-communist movement must be shaped; one in which communism is once again an expression of class protest and class activity.
  244. Left Needs Soul Searching
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    The left fears that the people it is trying to persuade and mobilize aren't capable of imagining or accepting a truly radical vision of the future.
  245. The Left needs to "find common ground" with Evangelical Christians 
    "There's no point arguing that it can't be done because the cultural differences are too great," says Chomsky

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    A discussion between Noam Chomsky and Charles Derber excerpted from the novel by Derber entitled, "Welcome to the Revolution: Universalizing Democracy for Social Justice in Perilous Times."
  246. Left Out History - review
    Against The Current vol. 162

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    A review of 'Hillbilly Nationalists, Urban Race Rebels and Black Power' by Amy Sonnie and James Tracy.
  247. "Left Reformism" and socialist strategy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Rooksby talks about the renewed interest in radical left "big picture" questions of socialist strategy that represents a return to "important debates of the left largely absent over the last three decades." The major factors driving this are several years of deep capitalist crisis together with the almost total capitulation of social democratic parties across Europe to the austerity agenda, opening up a clear space to the left of these organisations.
  248. Left reformism, the state and the problem of socialist politics today
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    The recent calls for the British left either to “reclaim Labour” (Len McCluskey) or to build a new party capable of emulating Syriza’s successes in Greece (Ken Loach) demand serious consideration on these pages. At their core these proposals reflect a widespread desire, shared by members of the Socialist Workers Party, to fight the cuts, alongside revulsion at the Labour Party’s failure to do so. They also reflect a genuine excitement across the left about the prospects for new left formations such as Syriza and France’s similar Front de Gauche.
  249. Left reformism, the state and the problem of socialist politics today
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Blackledge claims that, while it is of the first importance that revolutionaries welcome and work alongside these coalitions, it is also imperative that we maintain our political independence from them so that we are better able to struggle for an alternative beyond the limitations of their politics. This perspective demands a clear analysis of the nature of reformism.
  250. The Left/Right Challenge to the Failed "War on Drugs"
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    More and more conservatives and liberals, from the halls of Congress to people in communities across the country, are agreeing that the so-called "war on drugs" needs serious rethinking.
  251. The Left Side
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1982
    THE LEFT SIDE is intended to generate debate about, and promote unity of action around issues of current importance in Manitoba, particularly those issues of greatest concern to labour, women, native people, environmentalists, and anti-nuclear groups.
  252. The Left and South Africa's Crisis
    Against The Current vol. 160

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    An interview with Brian Ashley, the editor of the South African journal AMANDLA!
  253. A Left Voice in Pakistan
    Against The Current vol. 131

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2007
    Following the October 18 attack on the massive procession into Karachi welcoming Benazir Bhutto back from an eight-year exile, Farooq Tariq, General Secretary of the Labour Party Pakistan, expressed his solidarity with the families of the more than 135 killed and 540 injured.
  254. Left-Wing, Anti-Bolshevik and Council Communism
    Resource Type: Website
    Index to the works of 'Left Communists' (a.k.a. 'Council Communists' or 'Anti-Bolshevik Communists') and other ultra-left Communist currents and the debates between Left Communists and the leaders of the Comintern and each other.
  255. "Left-Wing" Communism
    An Infantile Disorder

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1918
    Lenin's repsonse to ultraleftists who advocate 'no compromises' and refuse to work in 'reactionary' trade unions and parliamentary elections.
  256. Left-wing internationals, list of
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    This is a list of socialist, communist, and anarchist internationals. An "International" such as, the "First International", the "Second International", or the "Socialist International" may refer to a number of multi-national communist, radical, socialist, or union organizations, typically composed of national sections.
  257. The Left-Wing Media Fallacy
    Jeremy Bowen, The BBC, And Other National Treasures

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    The issue is not complex, not esoteric: in a world dominated by corporate power we rely on media corporations for news about that world. Future generations will surely be aghast that so few people today are able to perceive the perfectly obvious problem, the very clear source of mass control, that this implies.
  258. The left wing opposition in Italy during the period of the Resistance
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    An account of the groups to the left of the PCI, during WW2 by independent Marxist historical researcher Arturo Peregalli. It was first published in 'Revolutionary History, Vol.5, No.4', and translated by Barbara Rossi and Doris Bornstein.
  259. Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A series of rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks led or supported by left wing groups.
  260. The Left Worker-communist Party of Iraq
    Organization profile published 2007

    Resource Type: Organization
    Published: 2005
    Socialism Now. "The basis of socialism is the human being... Socialism is the movement to restore human beings' conscious will."
  261. The Left's Crisis
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    It was indicative of the left's sorry lack of ambition in the crisis that its calls for salary limits on Wall Street executives and transaction taxes on the financial sector were far more common than demands for turning the banks into public utilities.
  262. The Left's Crisis
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    It was indicative of the left's sorry lack of ambition in the crisis that its calls for salary limits on Wall Street executives and transaction taxes on the financial sector were far more common than demands for turning the banks into public utilities.
  263. Left-Wing Drexel Professor Who Opposes Free Speech Has His Curtailed
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Outspoken Drexel University associate professor George Ciccariello-Maher has been put on-leave by his employer, stiring the debate about academic freedom and free speech.
  264. leftwords
    Periodical profile published 1980

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1980
    Inactive/Defunct Periodical
  265. The Legacy of 1968
    Against The Current vol. 136

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    In 1989, the world systems theorists Giovanni Arrighi, Terence K. Hopkins and Immanuel Wallerstein wrote the following five short sentences: “There have only been two world revolutions. One took place in 1848. The second took place in 1968. Both were historical failures. Both transformed the world.”
  266. The Legacy of CLR James
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2002
    Facing Reality is an often maddening book containing a marvellous critique of the pretentiousness of the numerous little vanguards, and at other times a telling naivety about opposition forces in society.
  267. The Legacy of Forest Defender Chut Wutty
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    On the life, work, and death of the late Cambodian forest activist Chut Wutty, shot and killed at a logging site by military police.
  268. The Legacy of Luna
    The Story of a Tree, a Woman, and the Struggle to Save the Redwoods

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2000
  269. The Legacy of Rosa Luxemburg
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2015
    Norman Geras sets out to interrogate and refute the myths that have developed around Rosa Luxemburg's work.
  270. The Legacy of the New Left
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1994
  271. Legacy
    The Natural History of Ontario

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1989
    A comprehensive, extensively illustrated natural history of Ontario, covering bedrock, soils, birds, mammals, insects, wildflowers, forests, prehistoric life, and much more.
  272. Legal decisions threaten press freedom
    Minus Five

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1979
  273. Legal Lessons From the Green Scare
    When the Constitution is No Obstacle to the FBI

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Green Scare prosecutors and their coordinators in Washington are willing to destroy individual lives to score political points, and to trample their own rules in the process.
  274. Legal Process for Battered Women
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1979
  275. Legal Resource Centre
    Organization profile published 1981

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1981
    The Legal Resource Centre maintains a multi-media collection of legal and law-related sources for non-lawyers.
  276. Legal Resource Centre
    Organization profile published 1983

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1983
  277. Legal Resource Centre
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
  278. Legal Ruling Will Allow Rain Forest Indigenous Peoples to Pursue Chevron in Canada
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Ontario Court of Appeal says communities of Ecuador affected by Chevron can enforce Ecuadorian rulings in Canada.
  279. Legalize Free Movement of Labor: Viewing A National Debate
    Against The Current vol. 123

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    The immigration debate is exposing deep social, racial and class divisions within American society. The arguments are sharp, furious and divide many families - immigrant as well as native born.
  280. Legalize It!
    Why Decriminalization of Drugs Won't Get the 10,000 Ton Monkey Off of Mexico's Back

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Decriminalization is turning into a bonanza for Mexico City cops who have taken to carrying scales to weigh confiscated drugs and shaking down those "criminals" who exceed the decreed limits. Shaking down small-time users and dealers is nothing new in this the most corrupt, crime-ridden, and conflictive city in the western hemisphere. Indeed, crooked cops have been planting drugs on unwary citizens as long as cops have patrolled these mean streets.
  281. Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage: What is at Stake?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    There are good people on either side of the same-sex marriage debate. Unfortunately, however, it has been one of the most divisive issues in society. Opponents of same-sex marriage perceive the other side as part of a cabal of gay activists and social-engineering judges and politicians, intent on making a mockery of important social values. Proponents of same-sex marriage often perceive the other side as "homophobic" bigots or religious fundamentalists who want to deprive gay or lesbian couples of a right enjoyed by others because they hate homosexuals. The debate over same-sex marriage has divided people who share common values and beliefs on many fundamental questions--war and peace, economic security, democracy versus the increasingly anti-democratic and repressive nature of American society. This divisive debate cripples the ability of ordinary Americans to unite around the things that we agree on.
  282. The Legend of Marx, or 'Engels the founder'
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1970
  283. Legislative Research Bureau
    Organization profile published 1991

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1991
  284. Legitimacy Versus Industrialism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1934   Published: 1965
  285. A Legless Veteran's Struggle
    Discrediting the Red Scare: The Cold War Trials of James Kutcher, "The Legless Veteran"

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Book review of Robert Goldstein's Discrediting the Red Scare: The Cold War Trials of James Kutcher, "The Legless Veteran".
  286. Das Leiden der Kinder im Gazastreifen
    Katastrophale Lage im Gazastreifen - Unzureichende Gesundheitsversorgung

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2007
  287. Lemke, Birsel
    Connexipedia: Right Livelihood Award Winner

    Resource Type: Article
    Turkish environmentalist. (Born 1950).
  288. Lena Horne & Her Times
    Against The Current vol. 147

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    If there were any doubt that the blues could be elegant, Lena Mary Calhoun Horne Hayton (as she signed her name) dispelled it. At age 26, she sang the title song to the film “Stormy Weather” and her sultry, silky voice branded the tune as hers forever.
  289. Lenin
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2011
  290. Lenin 1917-18: the road to the authoritarian state.
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Lenin’s focus when he returned to Russia in 1917 was on the facts of the revolution, rather than outdated Bolshevik theory. He began with what was real, rather than an abstract possibility.
  291. Lenin and the Vanguard Party
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1963
    To believe that Bolshevism, or to be more precise, Leninism, would under the circumstances advocate or preach the theory of the vanguard party is to continue slander of Leninism, but not to his theory of the party (that is no longer viable) but to his central doctrine - the role of the proletariat in the preservation of society from barbarism. To interpret Leninism as the advocacy of a vanguard party of three million is nearly as bad as the doctrine of Goebbels that Christ was not a Jew. Objective circumstances in Russia forced Lenin into a certain position. He accepted it without apologising for it. He knew what he was doing and he knew also, for he said it many times, what he was not doing. His doubts about it, not only for other countries but for Russia, he made public many, many times.
  292. Lenin as Philosopher
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1938   Published: 1948
    Since the importance of Lenin's philosophy is so strongly emphasised in Leninist organizations, it is necessary to make it the subject of a serious critical study. The doctrine of Party-Communism of the Third International cannot be judged adequately unless their philosophical basis is thoroughly examined.
  293. Lenin as Philosopher
    Some additional remarks to Anton Pannekoek's recent criticism of Lenin's book Materialism and Empirio-Criticism

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1938
    Both in his revolutionary materialist philosophy and m his revolutionary jacobinic politics, Lenin hid from himself the historical truth that his Russian revolution, in spite of a temporary attempt to break through its particular limitations in connection with the simultaneous revolutionary movement of the proletarian class in the West, was bound to remain in fact a belated successor of the great bourgeois revolutions of the past.
  294. Lenin in 1917
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1924   Published: 1925
  295. The Lenin Legend
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
    For Lenin, socialism was in the last instance merely a kind of state-capitalism.
  296. Lenin and Luxemburg: Negation in theory and Praxis
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1970
  297. Lenin On The Need For Political Compromise
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Considering the nature of compromises and how to deal with them.
  298. Lenin Quotes
    Resource Type: Article
    Writings of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924).
  299. Lenin Rediscovered
    What is to Be Done? in Context

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2008
  300. Lenin, Trotsky and the Vanguard Party
    A Contemporary View

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1963   Published: 1964
  301. Lenin, V.I.
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Russian revolutionary. (1870-1924).
  302. Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich
    Connexipedia: Entry in Encyclopedia of Marxism Glossary of People

    Resource Type: Article
    Russian revolutionary. (1870-1924).
  303. Lenin, Vladimir - Writings - Index
    Resource Type: Article
  304. Lenin: Yes! Leninism: No?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    It is currently a commonplace on the left and not-so-left to announce that Leninism is dead. Indeed, one might wonder why it is necessary to keep repeating the point. Nobody is writing articles to explain that alchemy or social credit are dead. The enthusiasm to bury Leninism tells us that this is something that people want to be dead.
  305. Leninism Under Lenin
    Resource Type: Book
    Liebman offers a portrayal of Lenin as primarily a revolutionary, focusing both on his fallibility and successes.
  306. Leninism vs. Debs's Socialist Party
    The Communist Fight Against Black Oppression

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Articles by Eugene Debs, written as polemics against racists within the Socialist Party, are eloquent in defending black people against racism, in calling for working-class unity across racial lines and in emphasizing that the Socialist Party should open its ranks to black people. In "The Negro in the Class Struggle," Debs stressed, "The history of the Negro in the United States is a history of crime without a parallel." Debs stands out favorably against most of his contemporaries in the labor movement -- including within the SP. Debs's writing remains a powerful denunciation of white workers' racism. Debs recognized that black oppression, rather than making white workers privileged, degrades them, thus providing a refutation of the later concept of "white skin privilege."
  307. The Leninist Facade
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1979
    In direct oppostion to what Marx advocated, the Bolsheviks tried to institute socialism without democracy. The damage to the socialist movement resulting from this was immense.
  308. Lenin's April Theses and the Russian Revolution
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    In 1917 Lenin arrived from exile iin Petrograd, soon to give an outline of what were to be called the April Theses. Broadly, the theses can be summarised as follows: Only the overthrow of the provisional government and the fight for soviet power could secure a state of affairs that would bring bread to the workers, land to the peasants and peace to end the imperialist war.
  309. Lenin's Electoral Strategy from 1907 to the October Revolution of 1917
    The Ballot, the Streets - or Both

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2014
    Nimtz details Lenin's efforts to guide the electroal strategy of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in the Third and Fourth State Dumas.
  310. Lenin's Electoral Strategy from Marx and Engels Through the Revolution of 1905
    The Ballot, the Streets - or Both

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2014
    This book explores the time in which Lenin developed his attitude to electoral strategy, beginning with the Marxist roots of Lenin's politics, and then detailing his efforts to lead the deputies of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in the First and Second State Dumas, concluding with Russia's first experiment in representative institutions from 1906 to 1907.
  311. Lenin's Last Struggle
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1967   Published: 1968
    An account of the last few months of Lenin's political life, when he was seriously ill but still attempting to guide the course of the Soviet state.
  312. Lenin's "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder revisited
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Lenin’s famous pamphlet holds the key to unlocking the reasons why the October 1917 Russian Revolution failed to spread to the more advanced industrial countries in Europe.
  313. Lenin's Moscow
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1953   Published: 1971
    Rosmer traces the furtunes of the Russian Revolution and the Communist International from 1920 to 1924.
  314. Leon, Abraham
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Jewish Trotskyist activist and theorist. (1918-1944).
  315. Leonard Peltier: 'My Last Hope for Freedom'
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Leonard Peltier is a political prisoner and Native freedom fighter who has been unjustly incacerated for 40 years. The International Leonard Peltier Defense Committee is ramping up efforts for Peltier's clemency under U.S. President Obama’s last year in office. This may be his last chance at freedom and justice. Find out how you can help achieve Peltier's freedom here: whoisleonardpeltier.info.
  316. Leonard Weinglass in History
    Len, A Lawyer in History: A Graphic Biography of Radical Attorney Leonard Weinglass

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Book review of Seth Tobocman's Len, A Lawyer in History: A Graphic Biography of Radical Attorney Leonard Weinglass.
  317. Leopold, Aldo
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    American ecologist, forester, and environmentalist who was influential in the development of modern environmental ethics and in the movement for wilderness preservation. (1887-1948).
  318. Gerda Lerner, 1920-2013
    Against The Current vol. 163

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Gerda Lerner has been the single most influential figure in the development of women’s and gender history since the 1960s.
  319. Lesbian and Gay Studies
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1990
  320. Lesbian Conference
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1990
  321. The Lesbian and Feminist Mothers' Political Action Grouip (LAFMPAG)
    Organization profile published 1981

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1981
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  322. The Lesbian and Feminist Mothers' Political Action Group (LAFMPAG)
    Organization profile published 1983

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1983
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  323. The Lesbian and Feminist Mothers' Political Group (LAFMPAG)
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
    The Lesbian and Feminist Mother's Political Action Group (LAFMPAG) was founded in 1979 and is a member of the British Columbia Federation of Women.
  324. Lesbian and gay liberation in Canada: a selected annotated chronology, 1964-1975
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1996
    This authoritative reference guide covers the first twelve years of the organized homophile/gay liberation movement in Canada, from 1964 (when the Association for Social Knowledge [ASK], Canada's first large-scale homophile organization, was formed in Vancouver) through 1975 (the year of the founding of the National Gay Rights Coalition [NGRC], the first truly national coalition of Canadian lesbian and gay groups).
  325. Lesbian and Gay Liberation in Canada: A Selected Annotated Chronology, 1976–1981
    Resource Type: Article
    Published: 2016
    This authoritative reference guide is a continuation of Lesbian and Gay Liberation in Canada: A Selected Annotated Chronology, 1964–1975. It starts where the first volume left off, and highlights some of the seminal events and people involved in the fight for gay rights in Canada to the end of 1981.
  326. Lesbian/Gay Organizations and Publications
    Relating to the Issue of Discrimination in the Labour Market and the Work Place

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1981
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
    This group (SPAG) has published a brief entitled "Rights and Realities: Discrimination and the Gay Women and Men of British Columbia."
  327. Lesbian & Gay Saskatchewan
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  328. Lesbian and Gay Studies
    Organization profile published 1990

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1990
  329. Lesbian Information Line: Project Proposal Submission
    Organization profile published 1980

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1980
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  330. Lesbian Issue/Etre Lesbienne
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1983
  331. The Lesbian Mothers Defence Fund
    Organization profile published 1984

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1984
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  332. The Lesbian Mothers' Defence Fund: A Resource for Women Fighting Child Custody Cases
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1978
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
    This fund is a project of "Wages Due Lesbians", a gay women's group active in the International Wages for Housework campaign. It will provide gay women with legal advice and help them to keep or win custody of their children.
  333. Lesbian Mothers' Defence Fund (LMDF)
    Organization profile published 1981

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1981
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  334. The Lesbian Mothers Defense Fund
    Organization profile published 1983

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1983
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  335. The Lesbian S/M Safety manual
    Resource Type: Book
  336. Lesbian Sex Mafia ("l s/m") speakout
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1982
    Report of a workshop on "politically correct, politically incorrect sexuality."
  337. Lesbian/Lesbienne
    Periodical profile published 1980

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1980
  338. Lesbians in Canada
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1990
  339. Lesbians of Colour
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1986
  340. Lesbians, gays and psychiatry
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1990
  341. Less Than 2 Dollars a Day
    A Christian View of World Poverty and Free Markets

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2007
  342. The Lesson of Germany
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1945
    Hitler's hundreds of thousands of storm troopers represented an enormous expense. They were thugs hired by the German bourgeoisie to fight its battles against the working class. In the years 1930-33 the German bureaucracy engineered election after election hoping to discredit parliamentary government and open the way for authoritarian rule. Despite his immense influence over the petty bourgeoisie, Hitler, by 1932, was on the wane. The German bourgeoisie deliberately maintained Nazism to have some power in reserve against Bolshevism. True, he dominated them afterward. We do not mean for one moment to deny the energy, the inventiveness, the will, the tenacity of Hitler and the other Nazi leaders. We do not deny their skilful use of social contradictions. He himself was obviously a born leader of men and an orator the like of whom Europe has not often seen. But from the time he began, the German bourgeoisie, the military caste, the bureaucracy, all built him up and without their active conscious support he would have been nothing.
  343. Lessons From Arizona
    Direct Action Organizing From 1999 to Now

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    What we saw in Arizona over the summer showed a new model of organizing, wherein cooperation between people who are dedicated to different tactics as well as space for accountability within the struggle takes centre stage.
  344. Lessons from COINTELPRO
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    We can best honor those who have been murdered by our government and their agents, not by mourning but by organizing, by building movements that put into practice solidarity across borders that are inclusive in all the important ways - class, gender, race, sexual orientation, language, immigrant status and age - that resist boldly and courageously all forms of inequality and environmental degradation.
  345. Lessons from New Orleans 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Interview with author Kristen Buras.
  346. Lessons from small shop organizing
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    A significant amount of organizing experience in the IWW comes from working in relatively small workplaces such as stand-alone single shops or franchises of multiple smaller shops. These places present their own set of difficulties and opportunities.
  347. Lessons from the 1905 Revolution
    Against The Current vol. 118

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2005
    1905 was a decisive year in Socialist History in that the working class movement developed two crucial weapons in its armory: Soviets (workers’ councils), which were new, and the general strike, which was not. Since that time both political forms have been extensively used and theorized.
  348. Lessons from the Tekel strikes: class solidarity and ethnic (in)difference
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    A worker puts it: “There are no differences between Kurds, Alevis, Sunnis and Turks. We have no party.”
  349. Lessons From the Working Class
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Acuna tries not to romanticize the working class, but he considers them his teachers.
  350. Lessons in leftism: Pete Seeger and the black power movement
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    The rise of "black power" led Pete Seeger to realize he had become a towering figure in a movement he didn't fully understand. The way he dealt with criticisms of him and his friends holds lessons for today.
  351. The Lessons of Amish Agriculture
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1987
    Amish agriculture offers valuable eco-lessons to those interested in organic, earth-friendly farming.
  352. Lessons of an Ambiguous Struggle
    Against The Current vol. 88

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2000
    The conflict around Congress' granting China Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) signals the opening of important new terrain of political struggle. With the background of the two major mass demonstrations against neoliberalism in Seattle and Washington D.C., perhaps the most significant and interesting political development is the leadership role of the AFL-CIO in mobilizing against the most important policy initiative of the waning Clinton administration.
  353. The Lessons of Gaza 2009
    Against The Current vol. 140

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    First the numbers: "1285 Palestinians killed, mostly civilians, including 167 civil police officers. 4336 Palestinians wounded, mostly civilians. Two political leaders of Hamas assassinated, Nizar Rayan and Said Siam, in bombs that flattened their home and also killed many of their family members and neighbors. Tens of thousands of people forced to abandon their homes: 2400 houses completely destroyed, and 17,000 semi-destroyed or damaged. Tens of mosques, public civilian facilities, police stations, and media, health, and educational institutions either completely or partially destroyed. 121 industrial and commercial workshops destroyed and at least 200 others damaged."
  354. The Lessons of Lebanon
    Against The Current vol. 124

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    So what has happened to the Israeli army? This question is now being raised not only around the world, but also in Israel itself. Clearly, there is a huge gap between the army's boastful arrogance, on which generations of Israelis have grown up, and the picture presented by this war.
  355. Lessons of Life and Death from Henry Spira: By Any Compromise Necessary?
    Against The Current vol. 85

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2000
    A friend of Henry Spira once asked him why he left teaching in New York City, where he was successful and loved by the students, to go into the animal rights struggle. Spira said that humans were more able than animals to help themselves because humans have “freedom in this country” and minds to think for themselves. This statement came not from a naive liberal dilettante do-gooder, but from a man with years of radical activism to his credit, including work with the Longshoremen and the Socialist Workers Party.
  356. The Lessons of October
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1924
  357. Lessons of the 1934 Minneapolis Strikes
    Seventy-Fifth Anniversary

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    A depiction of the Trotskyist union militants' organization of mass strikes in Minneapolis during 1934.
  358. Lessons of the Battle of Longview
    ILWU Holds the Line Against Union Busting

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    Reflections on the battle fought by the ILWU (International Longshore and Warehouse Union) against the giant EGT grain conglomerate.
  359. Lessons of the Civil Rights Movement (Part Two)
    Police Terror and Black Oppression

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Formal, legal inequality in the South was susceptible to reform. But getting rid of the economic and social reality that is black oppression in America -- from de facto segregation and poverty to police brutality -- is not subject to reform because it is integral to the capitalist system.
  360. Lessons of the Civil Rights Movement (Part One)
    Police Terror and Black Oppression

    Resource Type: Unclassified
    First Published: 2015
    Police reform is a hoax and a hustle. Federal investigations go nowhere and the Democrats are simply the soft cops of the capitalist system. There is no road to black liberation and the liberation of all working people short of workers revolution.
  361. Lessons of the Egyptian Struggle
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    I almost cannot believe that five years have passed since the chants of "the people want to bring down the system" and "Bread...Freedom...Social Justice...Human Dignity..." Maybe this is because even in my cell I am filled with dreams of freedom and with hope.
  362. Lessons of the Snowden Revelations
    You are the Target!

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    We in the Left have long worried about “police state tactics”. Now we have to confront the police state structure. It’s here and it can morph into a real police state with very little effort. Opposing and dismantling it should now be among our top priorities.
  363. Lessons of the Spanish Revolution
    Resource Type: Article
  364. Lessons of the Spanish Revolution 1936 - 1939 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1953   Published: 1972
  365. The lessons we have learned
    Palestine & Iraq: Any Signs of Hope?

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2002
    A speech on "the peace movement: lessons learned and the way forward." Henry Lowi argues that "There is no sign of hope, for the old prejudices and the old concepts, and there is no hope for the colonialists, and the supremacists, and the ethnic nationalists. There is hope for those who proclaim clearly, and organize diligently, for coexistence between Arabs and Jews under a democratic constitution that upholds human rights."
  366. Lest We Forget: Tar Sands and War
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Over the past decade, Canada has been a war profiteer and fuel tank for the US military, who have killed well over a million people since the turn of the new millennium.
  367. Let it bi
    Resource Type: Website
    French-language site for bi-sexuals.
  368. Let Me Speak!
    Testimony of Domitila, A Woman of the Bolivian Mines

    Resource Type: Book
    The author is the wife of a Bolivian tin miner and a pro-marxists activist. This is a vivid account of her activities and imprisonment, accompanied by her observations on the clergy, military, and upper-class abandonment of Bolivia's repressed poor.
  369. Let the Fire Burn
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    Why did Philadelphia police bomb a row house occupied by radical group "MOVE" in 1985? What accused authorities to stand idly by for over an hour before fighting the balze? Using archival material, this film investigates the ultimately tragic conflict.
  370. Let the Fire Burn
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 2013
    A history of the conflict of the City of Philadelphia and the Black Liberation organization, MOVE, that led to the disastrously violent final confrontation in 1985.
  371. Let the People Decide: Neighbourhood Organizing in America
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1994
    A history of neighbourhood-based community organizing in the United States.
  372. Let the People Know
    Put Full Texts of Government Contracts Online

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Openness in our government is essential for a healthy democracy
  373. Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky, His Life and Legacy
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1992
    A biography of Saul Alinsky and the evolution of his ideas on organizing.
  374. Let Them Eat Climate Change
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    The winds are changing for the energy giants. And so the black plumes of smoke emitted by the climate deniers in an attempt to provide cover for the coal, oil and gas industry have already been refined.
  375. Let Them Eat Cuts
    Against The Current vol. 150

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    The good times are flowing again for Wall Street and bank executives, and U.S. corporate profits have rarely if ever looked so lush. But it’s a brutal moment for working people, with much worse possibly to come. These twin realities set the economic and political agenda heading into 2011-12. Everyone knows the Republicans are hell-bent on “making Obama a one-term president,” but few expected that they’d capture the White House in 2010. If that’s an exaggeration, it’s a mild one.
  376. Let Them Eat Diversity
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    Alter Benn Michaels says that “'left neoliberals' are people who don’t understand themselves as neoliberals. They think that their commitments to anti-racism, to anti-sexism, to anti-homophobia constitute a critique of neoliberalism. But if you look at the history of the idea of neoliberalism you can see fairly quickly that neoliberalism arises as a kind of commitment precisely to those things."
  377. Let Them Eat Ketchup!
    The Politics of Poverty and Inequality

    Resource Type: Book
    Explains how governments define and measure poverty, how and why official definitions of poverty fall short, and the failure to deal with the real suffering and inequality in our "class-free" society.
  378. Let Us Take Care!
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1977
    "Let us Take Care!" is the result of discussions held with representatives of the chartered locals of the Ontario Nurses' Association. This report came about when nurses became concerned with the effects of the government's constraints program on health care in Ontario. The report is a compilation of observations of working places, concerns, and recommendations.
  379. Let's Be Practical
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1997
    Building a movement to destroy capitalism and create a society which truly reflects the aspirations of most people, though it may sound scary, is actually more practical than trying to reform a union.
  380. 'Let's Bring In Our Pentagon Spokesman' - Bombing Syria
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    If you want to get close to the 'defence' establishment, you better be close to the 'defence' establishment: ideologically, sympathetically, 'patriotically'.
  381. Let’s Call Out Institutional Insanities
    A Grotesque Inversion of Priorities

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    What are the signs that an institution is clinically insane? For over thirty-five years I have been trying to persuade psychological and psychiatric specialists and their professional associations to take up this serious subject for study and corrective suggestions. Alas, to no avail.
  382. Let's Get to Work
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Instead of asking "What is to be done?", we could start with a different question: "What should I do?" As it turns out, the right-wing hecklers we've all encountered are half right: we should get jobs. And then we should do what we tell workers to do all the time: organize our workplaces. This tactic has a name and a history. It's called "salting." Salting has deep roots in the history of the labour movement and the Left.
  383. Let's Just Pretend
    We Didn’t Offshore Manufacturing?

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Is an iPhone made in China and exported to Europe a U.S. export? Is an Apple executive a manufacturing worker? Yes, and yes. At least those could become the answers if a new proposal afoot among some in the administration is allowed to take effect. Federal agencies grouped under the bland-sounding Economic Classification Policy Committee (ECPC) are proposing to radically redefine U.S. manufacturing and trade statistics. The proposal would deceptively deflate the size of reported, but not actual, U.S. manufacturing trade deficits, while artificially inflating the number of U.S. manufacturing jobs overnight.
  384. Let's Knock Off the Fare Box
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2007
    Olsen supports the argument in favour of fare-free transit by investigating the costs surrounding fare collection that are left largely unexamined by officials and unannounced to the public in various North American cities.
  385. Let's Play Together 
    Co-operative Games for All Ages

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1989
    A collection of over 300 games and sports which put co-operation before competition.
  386. Let's Stop Google from Gobbling Up Our Schools
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    In October of 2006, Google launched its Apps for Education, with Arizona State University being its first client. Today there are more than 25 million individual users in both K-12 and higher ed institutions, and 74 of the top 100 universities use Google apps for their university communications and software applications.
  387. Let's Stop Kidding Ourselves About the NDP 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1989
    Canadian socialists are terribly reluctant to give up their illusions about the NDP.
  388. Let's Talk About Another Burning Color: Black Flame vs. Red Fire Extinguisher?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Class struggle anarchists are not the only revolutionary forces on the left, and are not the only libertarian left revolutionary forces. In my opinion, anarchists can learn a lot from some marxists.
  389. Let's Talk TPP
    Resource Type: Article
    By now, many of us have heard that the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) was negotiated in complete secrecy, with no opportunity for Canadians to engage with the process or to have their voices heard. This changes today. Right now the government is asking Canadians what they think before they move to push this agreement into law. This is your best chance to let your MP and the Parliamentary Committee reviewing the TPP know where you stand. Use this tool to get your views on the public record of the Standing Committee on International Trade.
  390. Let's wage war for energy independence
    Resource Type: Article
  391. Letter - Coleman
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1979
  392. Letter - Flosznick
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1979
  393. Letter - Canadas pride
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    One of the nicest things about my brief visit to Canada was finding Red Menace.
  394. The Letter Exchange
    A Magazine for Letter Writers - Periodical profile published 1989

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1989
  395. Letter - Flogging away
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    A great many anarchists adopt a critical stance to Bakunin's legacy as well as towards the anarchist movement generally. Our rejection of Marxism is not monolithic.
  396. Letter from Baltimore
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    Coming to grips with the impact of Occupy Baltimore means not just evaluating what the movement has been able to do or not do on its own terms but rooting its experiences in this larger picture of class decomposition and re-composition that in Baltimore followed in the wake of the same patterns of deindustrialization, suburban flight and disinvestment .
  397. Letter from Ecuador - where defending nature and community is a crime
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Ecuador's president attacked eco-defender Carlos Zorrilla in TV broadcasts for resisting a new copper mine in an area of pristine forest, and opposing the advance of oil exploration into the Amazon. Zorilla seeks international support for him and his battle for land.
  398. Letter from Marty Glaberman to Zerowork
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1977
    Martin Glaberman explains some of his criticism of the Zerowork journal.
  399. Letter From Mexico
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    The editors of Insurgent Notes sent a couple of articles on Mexico from the Financial Times to our Mexico correspondent to check their accuracy. The following is his reply.
  400. Letter From Mexico City
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    A letter from a Mexican comrade about the specifics of the “neo-liberal” phase of capitalism in Mexico since the 1970s, and the role in it of Carlos Salinas, as Mexican president from 1988 to 1994, and subsequently.
  401. Letter From Mexico: The Privatization of PEMEX
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    In 2009, the Compañia Luz y Fuerza (or LyFC, Luz y Fuerza del Centro), a semi-state company providing electricity to Mexico City and some other states in the centre of the country, was disappeared on a moonless Saturday night.
  402. Letter from Nazareth
    The forgotten Palestinians

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    The city's Christians and Muslims continue to struggle against Israel's divide-and-rule policies
    At 26 metres, Nazareth's artificial Christmas tree is the tallest in the Middle East, or so city officials boast. Its glinting red, silver and golden baubles have brought a temporary, but much-needed cheer to the city of Jesus' childhood. Despite the festive mood, friends and neighbours in what is Israel's largest Palestinian city struggle to sound hopeful about the future. Even the inflatable Father Christmases hanging from shop awnings look forlorn.
  403. Letter from Nazareth: The forgotten Palestinians
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    The city's Christians and Muslims continue to struggle against Israel's divide-and-rule policies.
  404. Letter from New York
    Resource Type: Article
    Child poverty and death.
  405. A Letter from North America – Our Migrant Crisis
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    This is the third of Ernie Tate’s letters to Left Unity detailing and analysing the struggles against Trump as they emerge on the other side of the pond.
  406. Letter From Thailand II
    Resource Type: Letter
    First Published: 2014
    The wealthy businessman Thaksin Shinawatra was first elected in 2001. His fortune was built using family money and taking advantage of contacts he developed, a sort of cronyism that is de rigueur in Thailand.
  407. Letter from Tokyo: In "The Zone" of Disaster
    Against The Current vol. 154

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    On the morning of Thursday, March 17th, six days after the earthquake and tsunamis, the Asahi Shimbun newspaper had just one advertising supplement: a full-color glossy piece from a Buddhist temple, selling grave sites.
  408. Letter: Karl Marx to Arnold Ruge
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1843
    Constructing the future and settling everything for all times are not our affair, it is all the more clear what we have to accomplish at present: I am referring to ruthless criticism of all that exists, ruthless both in the sense of not being afraid of the results it arrives at and in the sense of being just as little afraid of conflict with the powers that be.
    Therefore I am not in favour of raising any dogmatic banner. On the contrary, we must try to help the dogmatists to clarify their propositions for themselves.
  409. Letter - Manchester calling
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    The Red Menace: very stimulating reading.
  410. A letter of resignation
    I refuse to brainwash Canadian students

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1971
  411. Letter - The quoting urge
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    A reader submits a collection of quotes from Bakunin.
  412. Letter - Raised consciousness
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    Debunking jargon.
  413. Letter - Terrorism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    You can't blow up a social relationship.
  414. Letter - The good and the bad
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    What are the contemporary differences between serious anarchists and serious libertarian Marxists? It is the present historical situation that is relevant, since after all we cannot go back and change the past.
  415. Letter to a Progressive Democrat
    Against The Current vol. 110

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2004
    Dear Progressive Democrat: I voted for Ralph Nader in 2000 and I'm proud of it. You voted for Nader and you regret it (or, you voted for Gore, even though you liked Nader better).
  416. Letter to Bracke
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1875
    Karl Marx comments on the unity programme (Gotha programme) of the German Democratic Workers Party and the People's Party.
  417. Letter to Canadian Dimension
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1982
    The left of the NDP consists of a scraggly band of public service union bureaucrats, almost as out of touch with their union membership as the right wing, and a declining number of socialist academics ensconsced in their ivory towers. The traditional NDP left, whose link up with the 'new left' in the Waffle almost defeated the party leadership no longer exists.
  418. A Letter To Other Occupiers
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    We need to act within a wide strategic context, and engage in more than tactical exercises. We need to invite local people to join our ranks and institutions. We cannot hope to win the trust of others, especially others different from ourselves in class background, cultural preferences, race, or gender, unless we stay long enough to win that trust one day at a time. We must be prepared to spend years in communities where there may not be many fellow radicals. In thinking about our own lives, and how we can contribute over what Nicaraguans call a “long trajectory,” we need to acquire skills that poor and oppressed persons perceive to be needed.
  419. Letter to Palestinian and Lebanese filmmakers from Israeli filmmakers
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    We unequivocally oppose the brutality and cruelty of Israeli policy.
  420. Letter to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau regarding Line 9
    Climate Change and the Line 9B Reversal Project

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    A letter from community organizations in southern Ontario and Quebec, impacted Indigenous communities, and national organizations that would like to express adamant opposition to the recent 'Leave to Open' status granted to the Enbridge Line 9B reversal project by the National Energy Board (NEB) of Canada.
  421. Letter to Readers
    Against The Current vol. 148

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    We are writing you this letter to invite you to support the effort to preserve and renovate the Leon Trotsky Museum (IDA-MCLTAC) in Mexico City as we mark the 70th anniversary of the assassination of Leon Trotsky, the 35th anniversary of the opening of the Trotsky Museum, and the 20th anniversary of the founding of the Institute on the Right of Asylum.
  422. Letter to Socialisme ou Barbarie
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1953
    Councils are not only the means by which workers will exercise power after the taking of social power by the workers; we consider them as also being the organisms by means of which the workers will conquer this power.
  423. A Letter to the ATC Editors
    Against The Current vol. 141

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    A brief letter doesn’t allow much space to speak on markets and planning under socialism, but perhaps these few notes will help clarify the issues.
  424. Letter to the Editor of Canadian Dimension
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
    PAYDAY is a group of people struggling to get recognition in our society for work now unrecognized by the capitalist system, They believe housework, looking for a job, and raising children are, in themselves, wage-deserving enterprises.
  425. Letter to the Editors
    Against The Current vol. 161

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    The argument for sweatshops comes not only from “free market” ideologues but sometimes from voices of establishment liberalism. An argument against.
  426. Letter to the Joint Clerks of the Special Joint Committee on the Constitution of Canada
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
    The Letter to the Joint Clerks of the Special Joint Committee on the Constitution of Canada is an official response of the United Native Nations to Bill C-60, the Act to amend the Canadian Constitution.
  427. Letter to the New Left
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1960
  428. Letter to the Next Left
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    The problem of agency is especially relevant to what remains of the Left today, and it is the part of C. Wright Mills’ Letter to the New Left that is the most problematic.
  429. Letter to the Red Menace- Unpublished letter (Linnille)
    Resource Type: Article
    Inquiring letter.
  430. Letter to the Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    A letter rasing critical questions about the commission.
  431. Letter - Useless pastime
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1980
    Let's get down to the business of really discussing the issues: the role and nature of the State, trade unions, feminism, nationalism, sexuality, etc.
  432. Letters (Issue #3)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
    Comments on Wages for Housework, libertarian socialism, workplace articles, etc.
  433. Letters from an Inhabitant of Geneva to His Contemporaries
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1803
    I think that all classes of society would be happy in the following situation: spiritual power in the hands of the scientists; temporal power in those of the proprietors; power to nominate those called upon to carry out the functions of the great leaders of mankind in the hands of everyone; the reward for those who govern is high esteem.
  434. Letters from Lexington
    Reflections on Propaganda

    Resource Type: Book
    Published: 1993
  435. Letters from Prison to Sophie Liebknecht
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
  436. Letters from the Edge
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2008
    A powerful collection in which women home in on nuances of life in far-flung countries.
  437. Letters from Young Activists
    Today's Rebels Speak Out

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2005
  438. Letters of Insurgents 
    Resource Type: Book
    Published: 1976
    A fictional exchange of letters between people grappling with the question of what the struggle for freedom means in the West and in thecountries of the Soviet bloc. A gripping discussion of the issues of social change and liberation as they affect real
  439. Letters of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 1870 & after
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1870   Published: 1895
  440. Letters of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels for the 1850s
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1859
  441. Letters of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels for the 1860s
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1869
  442. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1844
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  443. Letters of Marx and Engels 1845
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1844
  444. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1846
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1846
  445. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1847
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1847
  446. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1848
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1848
  447. Letters of Marx and Engels: 1849
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1849
  448. The Letters of Rosa Luxemburg 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1990   Published: 2011
    Blending a passionate sensibility and a steely intellect with an unshakeable commitment to revolutionary socialism, Rosa Luxemburg is one of the towering figures of the twentieth century. In this comprehensive collection selection of Luxemburg's letters, her political concerns are revealed alongside the story of a vivid inner life.
  449. Letters to a Quebecois Friend
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1990
    Philip Resnick, a political scientist and long-time radical, formerly from Quebec, but now teaching at the University of British Columbia, wrote the "letters" in this volume to an imaginary Quebecois friend in the aftermath of the 1988 Free Trade election, when Quebec's votes gave the Mulroney government a majority of seats in the House of Commons even though a strong majority of Canadians voted against Free Trade and against the Conservatives.
  450. Letters to My Torturer
    Love, Revolution, and Imprisonment in Iran

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2010
    In these letters, Asadi confronts the man who tortured him while he was held prisoner in Iran.
  451. Letters to the Editor
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2004
    The Letters page is one of the most popular sections of any newspaper, and is therefore an ideal way to keep your name and your core message in front of the public.
  452. Letters to the Editors: What Are You For? Democracy Vs. Politics
    Against The Current vol. 138

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    I’ve been reading Against the Current for a long time. I agree with 99% of it, because we’re against the same things. But what are you for?
  453. Letters: (Issue #2)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1977
  454. Lettuce Picking and Left-Wing Organizing
    A Bottom Up View of Cesar Chavez's United Farm Workers

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Early reviews Lettuce Wars: Ten Years of Work and Struggle in The Fields of California by Bruce Neuburger, who spent much of the 1970s as a lettuce- and agricultural product picker during the heyday of the United Farm Workers (UFW).
  455. Lettuce Wars
    Ten Years of Work and Struggle in The Fields of California

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2013
    An account of ten years working as a farmworker in California and participating in the struggles over wages, working conditions, and unionization.
  456. Levellers
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A political movement during the English Civil Wars on the 17th century which emphasised popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, equality before the law, and religious tolerance.
  457. Levi, Paul - Writings - Index
    Resource Type: Article
    Writings of Paul Levi (1886-1930).
  458. Lewis, David
    Connexipedia: Article in the Canadian Encyclopedia

    Resource Type: Article
    Socialist politician, labour lawyer, and leader of the federal New Democratic Party. (1909-1981).
  459. Lewis Mumford
    Obituary

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1990
  460. Lewis, Stephen
    Connexipedia: Article in the Canadian Encyclopedia

    Resource Type: Article
    Politician, diplomat, author, journalist, labour arbitrator, and former leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party. (Born 1937).
  461. LGBT: a Dissection
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    "LGBT" is everywhere these days. But is it here to stay, or is it a passing fad? Where did it come from? Why was it promoted? By whom? And to what end? How did it acquire its seemingly endless variants? The acronym, in its many permutations, designates a movement very different from the gay liberation movement it evolved from. Some might see it as progress, expansion, and greater inclusivity, others as a tombstone for what was once a radical sexual liberation movement.
  462. LGBT history, Timeline of
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) related history.
  463. LGBT Social Movements
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender social movements.
  464. Li Ta-Chao and the Origins of Chinese Marxism
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2008
  465. Libcom.org 
    Resource Type: Website
    Resource for all people who wish to improve their lives, their communities and their working conditions. We want to discuss with one another, learn from experiences of the past and develop strategies to increase the power that we, as ordinary people, have over our own lives.
  466. Libel
    A Handbook for Canadian publishers, Editors and Writers

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1987
  467. Libel Law is dangerous
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1992
    Libel laws threaten freedom of speech.
  468. Liberal Antiwar Activism is the Problem
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Every election season, veterans and their families are used as political pawns. During the Democratic National Convention in Philly, the Khans, the mother and father of a Marine Captain who was killed in Iraq, conveniently filled the role for Hillary Clinton and the Neoliberals. At the Republican National Convention, Patricia Smith gladly took the stage for the Neofascists and talked about the death of her son and the non-scandal that is, Benghazi. In the meantime, anyone who opposes U.S. Empire is shit-out-of-luck when it comes to presidential elections and the two major parties. Here, we should commend Gary Johnson and Jill Stein for remaining principled in their views surrounding foreign policy, militarism, torture and surveillance. They’re the last of a dying breed.
  469. The liberal climate agenda is doomed to failure
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Liberal environmentalism represents a dangerous delusion, writes Scott Parkin - that 'playing nice' with Earth-destroying corporations and politicians can yield results worth having. Radical change on climate will only result from bold, confrontational direct actions against the fossil fuel industries and their apologists.
  470. Liberal Condescension
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    In the wake of Donald Trump’s victory in the U.S. election, a debate has erupted on the liberal left about the best way to deal with working class people who voted for Trump. The disagreement, for many of the participants, appears to revolve around whether liberals ought to spend their time giving patronizing lectures about white privilege, or patronizing lectures about other aspects of reality. What people on both sides of the debate seem to share is the assumption that the job of middle-class liberals is to lecture the working class.
  471. The Liberal Defence of Murder
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2008
    A searching examination of the influence of the "pro-war Left" on US foreign policy.
  472. Liberal dogma shipwrecked
    From Market Madness to Recession

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1998
    The first serious crisis of the post-communist era is at once economic, political, ideological and strategic. All the postulates put forward over the past 10 years as fundamental to modern society are called into question, this time throughout the world.
  473. Liberal Dreams and Nature's Limits
    Great Cities of North America Since 1600

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1996
    An exploration of city life through time, focusing on the life [economically, socially, politically, etc.] of five large North American cities at various times in the past - Philadelphia during the time of Benjamin Franklin (1760), New York in the mid nineteenth-century (1860), Chicago at the beginning of the Progressivist Civic Movements (1910), Los Angeles during the immediate Post-war boom (1950) and Toronto at the beginning of its own ascendancy in the 1970's. (1975).
  474. The Liberal Hounding of Julian Assange: From Alex Gibney to The Guardian
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    At what point do we cry foul when we witness the abuse of a political dissident, one who dares to take on mighty vested interests? When his own state, the local legal system and the media all turn on him? When he is forced to seek sanctuary in a foreign embassy for many years, surrounded by state security forces threatening to arrest him if he leaves? When the world’s highest arbiter on the matter of his confinement, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, supports his case? When the state, legal authorities and the media ignore the ruling and continue to demand his arrest?
  475. 'Liberal' Libel Law: Still a Disgrace to Democracy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    In the age of social media, our allegedly liberal libel laws might pose more of a threat to unfettered free speech than ever.
  476. The Liberal Virus
    Permanent War and the Americanization of the World

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2004
    Argues that the ongoing American project to dominate the world through military force has its roots in European liberalism, but has developed certain features of liberal ideology in a new and uniquely dangerous form.
  477. The liberal way to run the world - "improve" or we'll kill you
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    Since 1945, more than a third of the membership of the United Nations - 69 countries - have suffered some or all of the following. They have been invaded, their governments overthrown, their popular movements suppressed, their elections subverted and their people bombed. The death toll is estimated to be in the millions. This has been principally the project of the liberal flame carrier, the United States.
  478. Liberalism as Class Warfare
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Liberals, as guardians of the status quo, are class warriors on the side of economic mal-distribution and the immiseration of the labouring classes and poor for the benefit of the rich.
  479. Liberals Beware: Lie Down With Dogs, Get Up With Fleas
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    An examination of the dishonesty in the New York Times' efforts to undermine President Trump, and broader criticisms of other tactics used by the liberal establishment to the same end.
  480. Liberals' interim pipeline measures fall short
    Band-aid solutions cannot fix deeply flawed pipeline reviews, environmental assessments

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    The Harper government’s 2012 environmental law rollbacks were a blunt-force trauma to the environmental assessment of pipelines. Last week, the new federal Liberal government prescribed band-aids for an ailing patient that needed more.
  481. Liberals' Neglect of Hassan Diab a Scar on Canada's History
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    An innocent Canadian citizen has been wrongly incarcerated by foreign powers and torn away from his family, but our country's leader seems unfazed.
  482. The Liberated Man
    Beyond Masculinity: Freeing Men and Their Relationship with Women

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1975
    Farrell explores the problems that men face and suggests new approaches to better male-female relationships.
  483. Liberating Sexual Desire
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1992
    Everyone is potentially bisexual; the struggle for lesbian and gay equality is about the right of all people to share the joy of same-sex relationships without guilt or anxiety, and without the fear of prejudice and discrimination.
  484. Liberating Thought: Toward an Independent Mass Media
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Prospects for democracy are dependent upon the growth of an independent media with wide exposure in the general population comparable to that of the corporate press.
  485. Liberation (magazine)
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1956   Published: 1977
    A monthly left-wing magazine published in the U.S. from 1956-1977, founded by Dave Dellinger and A.J. Muste.
  486. Liberation - Volume 17, No. 3, 4, 5 - August 1972
    Workers: A Special Section

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1972
  487. Liberation - Volume 18, Number 4 - December 1973
    Do The People Need a Party?

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1973
  488. Liberation Books
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
  489. Liberation News Service
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A leftist alternative news service in the USA from 1967 to 1981.
  490. Liberation, Then What?
    Against The Current vol. 124

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    In a lucid contribution to our understanding of contemporary Africa, David Seddon and Leo Zeilig recently charted that continent's two waves of popular protest and class struggle over the last 40 years, as well as pointing to signs of a nascent third wave.
  491. Liberation theology
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    The Theology of Liberation is a theology in which the salvation or liberation wrought by Christ is examined not only in terms of liberation from individual sin, but also in terms of liberation in other spheres: the aspirations of oppressed peoples and social classes; an understanding of history in which the human being is seen as assuming conscious responsibility for human destiny; and Christ the Saviour liberating the human race from sin, which is the root of all disruption of friendship and of all injustice and oppression.
  492. The Liberator Files
    Selections from The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison's Abolitionist Newspaper

    Resource Type: Website
    The Liberator was a Boston-based Abolitionist newspaper, published by William Lloyd Garrison from 1831 to 1865.
  493. La "libertad de expresión", siempre y cuando no ofenda a nadie
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
  494. Libertaria: A Libertarian Paradise
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Most people have never heard of Libertaria (not to be confused with Liberia), so let discover a little bit about this most interesting nation. It is a veritable libertarian paradise. With a population of fifty million people and plentiful natural resources, Libertaria is truly blessed.
  495. Libertarian communism: an introduction
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    A short introduction to what we at libcom.org refer to as communism or libertarian communism, what it is and why we think it is a good idea.
  496. The Libertarian Labyrinth
    Resource Type: Website
    An archive of anarchist and libertarian theory and history.
  497. Libertarian League
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A name used by two American libertarian organisations during the twentieth century.
  498. Libertarian Marxism
    Wikipedia article

    Resource Type: Article
    Libertarian Marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian and anti-state aspects of Marxism.
  499. A libertarian Marxist tendency map
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    This tendency map was produced by Chris Wright for endpage.com, now part of the libcom.org library - it is designed to trace some of the important tendencies in libertarian Marxism. Contains a brief written history with links to key individuals, groups and publications, and a graphic map.
  500. Libertarian Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1977
    There must be a revolt against bureaucracy - the predominant trend of societal organization.
  501. Libertarian Socialism
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Published: 2010
    A socialist political orientation which promote a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic, stateless society without private property in the means of production. Libertarian socialism is opposed to coercive forms of social organization, and promotes free association in place of the coercive social relations of capitalism
  502. Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2017
    Explores the important, too often neglected left-libertarian currents that have thrived in revolutionary socialist movements. By turns, the collection interrogates the theoretical boundaries between Marxism and anarchism and the process of their formation, the overlaps and creative tensions that shaped left-libertarian theory and practice, and the stumbling blocks to movement cooperation.
  503. Libertarian Worker
    Poland: An Anarchist Viewpoint - Periodical profile published 1980

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1980
    This issue of Lbertarian Worker forcuses on the events of 1980 in Poland. One article also discusses feminist theory and anarchist feminism.
  504. "Liberté de parole" - aussi longtemps que cela n'offense personne
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
  505. La Liberté Speech
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1872
    Citizens, let us think of the basic principle of the International: Solidarity. Only when we have established this life-giving principle on a sound basis among the numerous workers of all countries will we attain the great final goal which we have set ourselves. The revolution must be carried out with solidarity; this is the great lesson of the French Commune, which fell becaue none of the other centres -- Berlin, Madrid, etc. -- developed great revolutionary movements comparable to the mighty uprising of the Paris proletariat.
  506. Liberties
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1989
    Aside from the subject of civil liberties itself, the book addresses the civil libertarian approach to such issues as censorship and freedom of speech, victimless crimes, and police powers. Specific articles target AIDS testing, legal aid, drug use, and psychological testing by employers.
  507. Liberties and Commons for All
    Preface to the Korean Edition of Magna Carta Manifesto

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    Liberties and Commons for All expresses two aspects of the ancient English Charters of Liberty; first is the restraint on political power of the King, second is the protection of subsistence in the commons.
  508. Liberty Against the Law
    Some Seventeenth-century Controversies

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1996
  509. The Liberty Tree
    A celebration of the life and writings of Thomas Paine

    Resource Type: Audio
  510. Libido
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    "The literary answer to the horizontal urge."
  511. Librarians and Palestine
    An Interview with Vani Natarajan

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Working to preserve Palestinian records and memory in the face of deliberate destruction by Israel.
  512. Librarians' Resource Centre
    Resource Type: Website
    Resources for librarians, including Topical Guides, Ready Reference, Directories, Dictionaries, Library catalogues, Library and Information Sciences.
  513. Libraries, Erotica & Pornography
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1991
  514. Libraries in an Information Society
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1987
  515. Library and Archives Canada
    Resource Type: Website
    Information about the collections and services of Library and Archives Canada, and direct access to a wide range of online resources.
  516. The Library at Night 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2006
    The Library at Night tells the story of the important role of libraries in human civilization and how books are an essential link between the individual and the world.
  517. Library Information Servers via WWW
    Resource Type: Website
    Links to library catalogues on the World Wide Web.
  518. Library of Congress World Wide Web site
    Resource Type: Website
    A gateway to massive amounts of information. Main site of the U.S. Library of Congress.
  519. The Library of the Turtle
    Resource Type: Website
    A home for much-loved texts in the history of struggle. The Library provides a space for the the valuable work of the conservation, the recuperation, and the recirculation of the Old, and even, on occasion, the Fairly Recent.
  520. Library Resources on the Internet
    Resource Type: Website
  521. Libya
    From Colony to Revolution

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2011
    Provides the background to the Libyan revolution by discussing its history from colonization up through the 2011 rebellion/foreign intervention that ousted Mu'ammar al-Qadafi.
  522. Libya and the Arab Uprisings
    Against The Current vol. 152

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 2011
    The sweeping upheavals in Arab countries and North Africa continue to unfold. Among these events, the uprising in Libya and the subsequent United Nations/NATO intervention have provoked intense controversy within the international left and antiwar movement. The debate is an inevitable and necessary one — given both the imminent massacre that appeared likely to occur if the Qaddafi regime recaptured Benghazi and other opposition population centers, and what we well know to be the far-from-humanitarian motives of the imperialist intervening powers.
  523. Libya and the World We Live In
    The Holy Triumvirate

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    The Holy Triumvirate — The United States, NATO and the European Union — recognizes no higher power and believes, literally, that it can do whatever it wants in the world, to whomever it wants, for as long as it wants, and call it whatever it wants, like “humanitarian”.
  524. Libya's Hell, Enabled by Canadian Humanitarians
    Who Will Protect Libyans Now?

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    One of the darkest and most shameful chapters in Western military intervention continues to play out in spades in Libya. Recent news from Benghazi revealed that one of the (literally hundreds) of murderous militias opened fire on peaceful, white-flag-bearing protesters (protesting militias), killing at least 20 and wounding over 130.
  525. Libya's second civil war
    From armed resistance to jihadist networks

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    With the events that led to Gaddafi's fall, a civil war between local groups and rival militias started in Libya. Four years later IS has appeared, and the country seems on the brink of collapse.
  526. Les licenciements: .les eviter eles reglementer .les compenser
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1980
  527. The Lichen Factor
    The Quest for Community Development in Canada

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1998
  528. Carl Lichtenstein
    1942 - 2011

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    Obituary for archivist for the Prometheus Research Library.
  529. The Lie Machine
    The Media and the TTIP

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    I have come to the conclusion that the West is a vast lie machine for the secret agendas of vested interests. Consider, for example, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the Transpacific Trade and Investment Partnership.
  530. Liebknecht, Karl
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    German socialist, revolutionary, and a co-founder of the Spartacist League. (1871-1919).
  531. Liebknecht, Karl - Writings - Index
    Resource Type: Article
    Writings of Karl Liebknecht (1871-1919).
  532. Liebknecht, Wilhelm
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    German social democrat, one of the founders of the SPD. (1826-1900).
  533. Lies about Assange and UN human rights jurists imperil us all
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    The defence secretary, 'comedians' on BBC Radio's News Quiz, and the entire media commentariat have ganged up this weekend up to pour mockery and poisonous lies over Julian Assange and the UN's human rights jurists. As they attempt to fight off the UN's 'guilty' verdict against the British state, they are putting dissidents at risk everywhere.
  534. Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them
    A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2003
  535. Lies, damned lies, and energy statistics - why nuclear is so much less than it claims to be
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    It's odd how often the contribution of nuclear energy is overstated by mixing up 'energy' and 'electricity', while a similar trick understates the importance of renewables like wind and solar. Even odder is how the mistake always seems to go the same way, to make nuclear look bigger than it really is, and renewables smaller. Welcome to the nuclear 'X factor'!
  536. Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics... and U.S. Africa Command
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    One of the strangest news developments of our time is the way the media now focus for days, if not weeks, 24/7, on a single event and its ramifications. Omar Mateen's slaughter of 49 people at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando is only the latest example of this. If no other calamitous or eye-catching event comes along (“‘Unimaginable’: Toddler’s body recovered by divers after alligator attack at Disney resort"), it could, top the news, in all its micro-ramifications and repetitions, for three or four weeks. Such stories -- especially mass killings, especially those with an aura of terrorism about them -- are particularly easy for strapped, often downsizing news outfits to cover. They are, in a sense, pre-packaged.
  537. "Lies, Lies and More Lies" - GMOs, Poisoned Agriculture and Toxic Rants
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    As as been well documented, it is the pro-GMO lobby/industry that distorts and censors science, captures regulatory bodies, attacks scientists whose findings are unpalatable to the industry and bypasses proper scientific and regulatory procedures altogether.
  538. The Lies of Alan Dershowitz
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    Violence is never the answer. Nor is racism. Nor is hate. Alan Dershowitz is a proponent of all three. Israelis and sympathetic Jews must finally realize that Dershowitz and other uncritical apologists of Israel are neither doing them nor the world any favors. Quite the opposite is true.
  539. The Lies of Alan Dershowitz
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1989
  540. The Lies of Neoliberal Economics (or How America Became a Nation of Sharecroppers)
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Michael Hudson and Chris Hedges talk about how America become a nation of 'sharecroppers'.
  541. Lies That Capitalists Tell Us
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Counter-arguments against common beliefs of the benefit of capitalism.
  542. Lies The Media Tell us
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2007
    Outlines the extent to which the mainstream media is subject to its corporate publishers and advertisers.
  543. Life after Communism West goes East
    New Internationalist April 2004

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 2004
    A look at the effects of communist rule in the former Soviet Union and the post-communism transition.
  544. Life After Death for Labor?
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2015
    A review of Stanley Aronowitz's book "The Death and Life of American Labor: Toward a New Workers’ Movement."
  545. Life After Death for Labor?
    The Death and Life of American Labor: Toward a New Workers' Movement (Book Review)

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    In his new book, veteran labour activist/academic Stanley Aronowitz offers a critique of what is wrong with the labour movement in the United States, as well as a 10-point manifesto for the steps "Toward a New Workers Movement."
  546. Life After Oil: A Renewable Energy Policy For Canada
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1983
  547. Life Against Death
    Psychoanalytical meaning of history

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1959
  548. The Life and Death of Socialist Zionism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2003
    As a mass movement, Socialist Zionism is finished. One might say that it accomplished its actual goal -- the building of the Jewish state. Unless one identifies "socialism" with statism, socialism was never a goal of Ben-Gurion and his co-thinkers.
  549. The Life and Death of Stalinism
    A Resurrection of Marxist Theory

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1990
    A leftwing analysis of Stalinism.
  550. Life and Labour Commune
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A Tolstoyan agricultural commune founded in 1921 and disbanded as a state run collective farm in 1937.
  551. The life and times of Occupy Wall Street
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    Occupy Wall Street (OWS), and the Occupy movement that rapidly spread across the country in late September 2011, marked a watershed moment in the re-emergence of mass struggle and radical politics in the United States.
  552. Life as Politics
    How Ordinary People Change the Middle East

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2009
    Asef Bayat reveals how under the shadow of the authoritarian rule, religious moral authorities, and economic elites, ordinary people can make meaningful change through the practices of everyday life.
  553. Life Before Medicare
    Canadian Experiences

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1996
  554. A Life Beyond Imagination - review of Searching for Sugar Man
    Against The Current vol. 162

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    A review of “Searching for Sugar Man”, Malik Bendjelloul directing.
  555. Life Beyond Pamphlets
    Creating Effective Words and Images for Health Promotion

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1988
  556. The Life and Death of Objective Peckham
    Stripped of British citizenship and killed by an American drone

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Documentation of the final years of Bilal el-Berjawi's life, a British-Lebanese citizen suspected of being a terrorist. The story raises questions about the British government's role in the targeted assassination of its citizens, and provides an insight into covert U.S. military actions.
  557. Life in the Factory
    Resource Type: Article
    This pamphlet concerns itself with the life of the working class in the process of production. and seeks to understand what the workers are thinking and doing while actually at work on the bench or on the line. Romano, himself a factory worker, has contributed greatly to such an understanding by his description, based upon years of study and observation, of the life of workers in modern mass production.
  558. Life Inside of the Song of History with Pete Seeger
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Remembering Pete Seeger, his music, and his impact.
  559. The Life, Loves, Wars and Foibles of Edward Abbey
    Monkeywrenching the Machine

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Fifty-three years ago, long before I had heard of Edward Abbey and Abraham Polonsky, I saw a film titled "Lonely are the Brave" that was based on Polonsky's adaptation of Abbey's novel "The Brave Cowboy".
  560. Life, Money & Illusion
    Living on Earth as if We Want to Stay

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2006
    The failure to reduce green house gas emissions, the success of efforts to curb ozone depletion, causes related to prosperity and social justice are just some the topics covered. By using the example of Kerela, India, Nickerson shows how a society by working together can become car-free, religious and bigotry free, have a high level of health care and literacy and be able to sustain itself on a fraction of the money on which we depend.
  561. A Life of Challenge to the Dogma of "Objectivity"
    Richard Bell Is Practiced at Juggling Journalism, Advocacy and Politics

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    Journalism, advocacy, politics: Are they completely different fields or aspects of the same game? Can someone actually do all three? Richard Bell has done them all and has lived to tell the tale.
  562. The Life of Death: An Exchange 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1985
    The really great form of courage and honesty that could be witnessed under the conditions of the Holocaust was when a Pole opposed the opinion or the silence of other Poles, when a Jew opposed other Jews, and when Germans opposed other Germans or Nazism in general. This is the type of courage which we should learn about and emulate.
  563. Life of Korolenko
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1918
    Rosa Luxemburg wrote this article as a preface to her translation, from Russian into German, of Vladimir Korolenko’s autobiographical novel Istoriia Moego Sovremennika (A History of My Contemporary). She undertook this work during her imprisonment for socialist opposition to the imperialist war from 1915 to 1918. The preface was written July 1918 in Breslau Prison
  564. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1950
    A biography.
  565. A Life of Struggle: Farewell to Hermann Gorter
    Resource Type: Article
  566. The Life of the Automobile
    Resource Type: Book
  567. A Life on the Jewish Left
    An Immigrant's Experience

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2000
    Biderman was a leader of the Labour League and the United Jewish Peoples Order, Communist-led organizations whose members were unted by progressive ideals and a love of Yiddish culture.
  568. Life on the Line
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1971
    Working on an assembly line in an auto plant.
  569. The Life and Resistance of a Chinese Worker
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Under China's labour management system, independent unionism is strictly banned, and the state's official trade union body monopolizes worker representation. That means that all of China’s 806,498,521 workers are barred from forming independent organizations to agitate for their interests -- in an economy where the poorest 25 percent of households own just 1 percent of the country’s total wealth, and where long hours, safety hazards, and authoritarian management define life in the factories. This official antagonism has not stopped the emergence of workers' resistance. The number of strikes has been increasing over the past two decades, and as Eli Friedman wrote last year, "on a typical day anywhere from half a dozen to several dozen strikes are likely taking place."
  570. Life sentence for fighting Africas last colonial power
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Kenworthy talks about the systematic violence, abusive treatment and torture that political prisoners and activists undergo in Western Sahara.
  571. Life Support for Labor? 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    A review of the book "Save Our Unions: Dispatches from a Movement in Distress" written by Steve Early.
  572. Life Support for Labor?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    The Debate Over how to save the labour movement suffers from a serious deficit of books written by organizers. Rarely do we get an entire book by someone who has been organizing for four decades, and is still actively engaged with union members, staff and leaders.
  573. The Life You Can Save
    Acting Now to End World Poverty

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2009
    This is the right time to ask yourself: "What should I be doing to help?" For the first time in history, it is now within our reach to eradicate world poverty and the suffering it brings. The people of the developed world face a profound choice: If we are not to turn our backs on a fifth of the world's population, we must become part of the solution.
  574. Lifestyles
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    Booklet about over-consumption, vegetarianism, co-ops, and Third World model of co-operation.
  575. Lifestyles
    The Politics of Alternative Lifestyles

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1977
    This newsletter deals with the questions and issues involved in considering an alternative lifestyle as an option for social change
  576. A Lifetime for Socialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1997
    An obituary of Milt Zaslow.
  577. Lifting the Burden of Debt
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1991
  578. Lifting the Iraq Embargo After Almost 2 Million Deaths
    What Have We Learned From the Embargo's Lessons?

    Resource Type: Article
    A summary of the 1991-2003 Iraq Embargo, and its devastating attack on the Iraqi civilian population.
  579. La Ligue des Droits et Libertes
    Organization profile published 1979

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1979
  580. Like a Dull Knife: The People's Climate "Farce"
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Even in a top-down format, one hopes the upcoming march could draw much-needed attention to the climate movement.
  581. 'Like a poison': how anti-immigrant Pegida is dividing Dresden
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    A year since its launch, German protest group has evolved into slick operation whose polarising rhetoric is increasingly blamed for attacks on refugees.
  582. Like Recycled Paper? Try Re-used
    Resource Type: Article
  583. Lilburne, John
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    English political agitator before, during and after English Civil Wars 1642-1650. (1614-1657).
  584. The limits of anti-racism 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    The contemporary discourse of 'antiracism' is focused much more on taxonomy than politics. It emphasizes the name by which we should call some strains of inequality -- whether they should be broadly recognized as evidence of 'racism' -- over specifying the mechanisms that produce them or even the steps that can be taken to combat them. And, no, neither 'overcoming racism' nor 'rejecting whiteness' qualifies as such a step any more than does waiting for the 'revolution' or urging God's heavenly intervention.
  585. Limits of Capital
    Resource Type: Book
    An exposition and development of Marx's critique of political economy. Harvey updates his text with a discussion of the turmoil in world markets today.
  586. The Limits of State Intervention
    Against The Current vol. 147

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    The Nation, as befits the preeminent journal of left-liberal opinion, has run a series of articles by Robert Pollin and by James K. Galbraith that have sparked great attention. These, as well as numerous other arguments in a similar vein, mount a spirited defense of job generation through deficit spending as effective counter-cyclical measures.
  587. Limits to Medicine: Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1976   Published: 1977
  588. Lincoln: A Review
    Civil War, Not Compromise, Smashed Slavery

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Lincoln—Steven Spielberg’s new movie reduces the abolition of slavery to so many parliamentary maneuvers.
  589. Abbey Lincoln and Freedom Now
    Against The Current vol. 149

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Abbey Lincoln — singer, composer, actor — left us on August 14 at age 80. A prolific and multidimensional artist (born Anna Marie Wooldridge), she took her performing name in the 1950s by combining “Westminister Abbey” and “Abraham Lincoln.” Composer and percussionist Max Roach, her partner in life — they were married from 1962-1970 — and in music and in political action, died on August 16, 2007.
  590. Lincoln, Abraham
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    President of the United States during the American Civil War. (1809-1865).
  591. Lincoln Brigade
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Volunteers from the United States who served in the Spanish Civil War in the International Brigades.
  592. A Line in the Tar Sands
    Struggles for Environmental Justice

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2014
    The fight over the tar sands in North America is among the epic environmental and social justice battles of our time, and one of the first that has managed to quite explicitly marry concern for frontline communities and immediate local hazards with fear for the future of the entire planet.
  593. Lineages of Revolt
    Issues of Contemporary Capitalism in the Middle East

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2013
    While the outcomes of the tumultuous uprisings that continue to transfix the Arab world remain uncertain, the root causes of rebellion persist. Drawing upon extensive empirical research, Lineages of Revolt tracks the major shifts in the region’s political economy over recent decades.
  594. Lineages of the Arab Revolt
    Book Review

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    A review of "Lineages of Revolt: Issues of Contemporary Capitalism in the Middle East" by Adam Hanieh.
  595. Linguistic data analysis of 3 billion Reddit comments shows the alt-right is getting stronger
    Taxonomy of Trolls

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    The alt-right isn't one group. They don't have one coherent identity. Rather, they're a loose collection of people from disparate backgrounds who would never normally interact: bored teenagers, gamers, men's rights activists, conspiracy theorists and, yes, white nationalists and neo-Nazis. But thanks to the internet, they’re beginning to form a cohesive group identity.
  596. Die Linke: Ten Years On
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Political organizations, particularly those committed to radical change, face their greatest tests in times of crisis. In 1914, German social democracy, the international socialist movement’s crown jewel, was brought to its knees by its inability to confront the outbreak of World War I. Two decades later, German Communism’s ultra-leftism proved similarly impotent in the face of the growing Nazi threat, and Europe's most powerful laboUr movement was decimated within a couple of years.
  597. The Lion and the Gazelle
    On Jewish History

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    If we, the Israelis, want to consolidate our nation, we have to free ourselves from the myths that belong to another form of existence and re-define our national history. We must recognize the difference between myth and history, between religion and nation, between a Diaspora and a state, in order to find our place in the region in which we live and develop a normal relationship with the neighboring peoples.
  598. Lip and the Self-Managed Counter-Revolution
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1973   Published: 1975
    Analyses of the struggle in the LIP watch-making factory in France.
  599. Lise Vogel and the politics of women's liberation
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    A review of Lise Vogel, Marxism and the Oppression of Women: Toward a Unitary Theory.
  600. List of Canadian Firms in Southern Africa
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
  601. List of Groups Involved in Social Action in Canada
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    CISS's first list of people networks engaged in Social Action in Canada.
  602. Listen Anarchist!
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1988
    Bufe criticizes many of the failings of the anarchist movement in North America, in theory and in practice.
  603. Listen, Marxist!
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1969   Published: 1971
    Murray Bookchin takes on the 'Marxist-Leninists' who are destroying the New Left.
  604. Listen Marxist: a reply
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1973
    Murray Bookchin replies to Jeremy Brecher's review of Post-Scarcity Anarchism.
  605. "Listen, Yankee!": Tom Hayden Captures Absurdity of Cuban Embargo
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    The US embargo of Cuba, like a bad hangover from the Cold War, has lingered on for far too long. After decades of bingeing on the country's particularly potent brand of anticommunism, the nation's ruling elite has found it near impossible to kick its predilection for holding Cuba to a higher standard than it does for putative US allies and, for that matter, the United States itself.
  606. Listening to Trump
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Trump is a racist and misogynist. But the heart of his message spoke to legitimate working class concerns.
  607. Listing of Progressive Periodicals
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1977
    Listing of progressive and alternative periodicals with many that are financially wanting and deserve support.
  608. Listing of Women's groups
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1983
  609. Literacy Council of P.E.I. - Charlottetown
    Organization profile published 1979

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1979
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  610. Literacy Project
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1980
  611. Literacy Working Group
    Resource Type: Slide Show
    First Published: 1980
  612. Literature as Pulpit
    The Christian Social Activism of Nellie McClung

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1993
  613. The Little Band
    The Clashes Between the Communists and the Political and Legal Establishment in Canada, 1928-1932

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1983
  614. Little Boxes and other handmade songs
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1964
    The best songs I write turn out to be something like folks songs because these traditional pieces say things the way I want to say them and am impelled to say them; they mean to speak surely and quietly, almost as an aside or half-heard observation, with a way of sticking in the memory as though they had something to say that you didn't catch the first time.
  615. Little Brother Watches Back
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1987
    Perhaps the most exciting aspect of working in the margins is the effect on the mainstream. What innovation in radio, television, journalism, or, for that matter, any social institution or relationship has not first appeared on the margin, only to be adapted and adopted. Margin and mainstream in dialectic move society forward.
  616. A Little Crooked House: Trudeau, Morneau, BMO & KPMG Inc
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Canada's Finance Minister Bill Morneau has recently reinvigorated his promise to crack down on tax evasion schemes, but how can we trust him when he is himself named in the Panama Papers?
  617. Little, Frank
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    American labour leader who organized miners, lumberjacks and oil field workers. (1879-1917).
  618. The Little Green Book: A Guide to Self-Reliant Living in the 1980's
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1981
  619. A Little Matter of Genocide
    Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1997   Published: 2001
    In this provocative collection of essays, Ward Churchill examines the definition of genocide -- in legal as well as cultural terms. Churchill reveals how the international definition of the crime of genocide has been subverted to meet various political ends -- and demonstrates why the historic and contemporary suffering of indigenous peoples should be included in this category.
  620. Little Rock Central High School
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    The site of forced school desegregation during the American Civil Rights Movement.
  621. Livable Winter City Association
    Organization profile published 1984

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1984
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  622. Live From Death Row
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1995
    A collection of prison writing by Mumia Abu-Jamal, who was sentenced to death in 1982 for the murder of a police officer after a dubious trial.
  623. Live Working or Die Fighting 
    How the Working Class Went Global

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2010
    Mason realtes a series of struggles for worker and human rights over the past two hundred years and compares them to current struggles.
  624. Livesay, Dorothy
    Connexipedia: Article in the Canadian Encyclopedia

    Resource Type: Article
    Poet, journalist, writer of short fiction, autobiography and literary criticism. (1909-1996).
  625. Living and Learning
    The Report of the Provincial Committee on Aims and Objectives of Education in the Schools of Ontario

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1968   Published: 1969
    The "Hall-Dennis" Report, proposing new objectives and direction in education in Ontario.
  626. Living and Working Uncovered
    Against The Current vol. 150

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    An interview with Sonya Huber. Sonya Huber (www.sonyahuber.com) is the author of Cover Me: A Health Insurance Memoir.
  627. Living by the Clock of the World: Grace Lee Boggs' Call for Visionary Organizing
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    Grace Lee Boggs recently argued that activists should spend less time on protest organizing because it "leads you more and more to defensive operations" and "Do visionary organizing" because it "gives you the opportunity to encourage the creative capacity in people and it’s very fulfilling."
  628. The Living Economy
    A New Economics in the Making

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1986
    An attempt to summarize the "new economics" for a wider audience. The new economics can be briefly described as that body of work, beginning with E.F. Schumacher, Herman Daly, and Hazel Henderson, which is critical of tradiational economic theory and seeks alternatives to the devastating impact of our current economic system on communities, individuals and the biosphere.
  629. Living for Change
    An Autobiography

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1998
    This fascinating autobiography traces the story of a woman who transcended class and racial boundaries to pursue her passionate belief in a better society.
  630. Living For Change - Review
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1999
  631. Living Free
    Periodical profile published 1989

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1989
  632. Living "Illegal"
    The Human Face of Unauthorized Immigration

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2011
  633. Living in a Dark Age
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1991
  634. Living in Pitiless Times: Baghdad, Beirut and Paris
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    A week of horrible carnage -- bomb blasts in Beirut and Baghdad and then the cold-blooded shootings in Paris. Each of these acts of terror left dead bodies and wounded lives. There is nothing good that comes of them – only the pain of the victim and then more pain as powerful people take refuge in clichéd policies that once again turn the wheel of violence. How does one react to these incidents? Horror and outrage come first. They are instinctual.
  635. Living in the Crosshairs
    The Untold Stories of Anti-Abortion Terrorism

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2015
    Abortion is a legal, common, and safe medical procedure that one in three American women will undergo. Yet ever since Roe v. Wade was decided in 1973, anti-abortion forces have tried nearly every tactic to eliminate it. Legislative and judicial developments dominate the news, but a troubling and all-too-common phenomenon -- targeted vigilante action against individual abortion providers -- is missing from the national discussion, only cropping up when a dramatic story like the murder of an abortion provider pushes it to the forefront.
  636. LIVING IN THE U.X.A.
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    At the height of the Great Depression, a group of unemployed Oakland workers decided to take matters into their own hands. The system wasn't working, so they set up their own system. Money was nearly worthless, so they decided to live by barter. They called themselves the Unemployed Exchange Association and they soon went on to write a remarkable chapter in American economic history.
  637. Living Inside Our Hope 
    A steadfast radical's thoughts on rebuilding the movement

    Resource Type: Book
    Published: 1997
    Staughton Lynd here reaffirms ideas central to the New Left of the sixties: nonviolence, participatory democracy, an experiential approach to education, and anti-capitalism.
  638. The Living Legacy of Cornel West
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    To some of his critics, West is a bitter intellectual prizefighter past his prime who feels the need to broadcast his paroxysms of rage over feeling snubbed by Obama.
  639. Living More With Less
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1980
  640. Living My Life
    Resource Type: Book
  641. Living Naked and Frugal
    A Handbook for Parsimonious Nudity

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1997
    Paul Penhallow's experience of living naked in a non-naked world spanned nearly ten years, and ranged from SunSpace, his 21st-floor high-rise apartment in downtown Syracuse, New York, to the many highways and parks of the Northern Atlantic states. Penhallow's "Four Laws of Naturism" ("Accept Yourself," "Respect Others," "Live Simply," and "Relax Daily") comprise the springboard for this book, which also contains a comprehensive listing of nudist resorts throughout the United States.
  642. The Living Seed 
    Part 1 of The Living Farms series

    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 2015
    Testimonies of farmers, seed savers, agronomists and scientists from across India and abroad form the basis for their compelling investigation of GMOs, organic farming and the future of agriculture.
  643. Living socialism, The experience of the eighties
    New Internationalist November 1985

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1985
    Discussion focusing on the challenges of living a socialist life in modern times. Political commitments to meeting people's needs can be more rhetoric than reality. "How can socialism maintain its ideals in an international climate shaped by those hostile towards it?"
  644. Living the Revolution
    The Yippies in Chicago

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1969
    David Lewis Stein portrays the Yippie movement as a middle-class endeavour in which the leaders (Rubin and Hoffman) represent a new version of an old middle-class virtue: ambition. They are media savvy and know how to court the press and televison.
  645. Living the Spanish Language as the Descendant of Afro-Caribbean Migrants in Costa Rica
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Several generations of the black population have been forced to fight in order to conserve the language they brought with them, and with it all of their accumulated history, wisdom, and identity. They struggle against the rejection of the mestizo majority as well as the governments in office, who have for years denied them Costa Rican nationality, despite being born in the country.
  646. Living Under Occupation
    Against The Current vol. 159

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    In her autobiography, Palestinian militant Leila Khaled calls the 1960s “America’s decade,” pointing to several spots around the world where the U.S. intervened against people’s struggles as evidence that the decade was not a cause for celebration.
  647. Living Wage Campaigns, Part 2: Challenges Facing the Movement
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1998
    IN THE PREVIOUS article (see ATC 76), I discussed the basic concepts, advocates and goals behind living wage campaigns, as well as some of the movement's successes. These include a positive ideological effect on legislators and other organizations' agendas; the creation of strong and lasting coalitions; the development of new worker organizations; and the growth of existing worker organizations.
  648. Living Wage Campaigns: Part I
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1998
    ROBERT KUTTNER WROTE in a recent Washington Post op-ed that living wage campaigns are “the most interesting (and under-reported) grassroots enterprise to emerge since the civil rights movement.”1
  649. A Living Wage in London
    Against The Current vol. 122

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    At a time when the United States is associated with the export of neoconservatism in the form of George Bush, readers will be heartened to read this tale of a more positive export as the living wage movement has leapt across the Atlantic over to the United Kingdom.
  650. Living Wage Movement: An Update
    Against The Current vol. 90

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2001
    Several months ago, a few hundred service workers in Santa Cruz, California won a raise. Workers who work for the city or for private sector firms who perform city services will now be eligible for $11 per hour plus health benefits or $12 per hour without benefits.
  651. Living with the Land
    Communities Restoring the Earth

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1992
    A collection of stories from grassroots communities about the benefits of ecological living.
  652. Livingstone, Kay
    Connexipedia: Article in Library and Archives Canada

    Resource Type: Article
    Social activist, radio host. (1918-1975).
  653. Loaves and Fishes
    The Inspiring Story of the Catholic Worker Movement

    Resource Type: Book
  654. Loaves & Fishes
    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
    Loaves and Fishes is a written leadership development resource that supports leaders who want to deal with children's questions about their faith, their lives and their concerns about justice.
  655. The Lobby Up Close & Personal
    Against The Current vol. 111

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2004
    "AIPAC has one goal only," said Lee Rosenberg, "Strengthening the U.S. Israel relationship." Acting on behalf of the Board of Directors of AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committee), Lee welcomed 1600 participants to a conference entitled "AIPAC Presents: The Israeli Summit, Tools for Action".
  656. The Lobby: Young Friends of Israel
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 2017
    In the first of a four-part series, Al Jazeera goes undercover inside the Israel Lobby in Britain. We expose a campaign to infiltrate and influence youth groups, including the National Union of Students, whose president faces a smear campaign coordinated by her own deputy and supported by the Israel Embassy.
  657. Lobbying, Capitalism And The State
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Lobbies pose a threat to a modern democracy and alienate the majority of the people outside the services of lobbyists who have become a fixture in politics.
  658. Lobbying Elites: The Fast Track To Extinction 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    As we evaluate the outcomes of the recent UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, one lesson that we are invited to learn, again, relates to our strategy for getting effective action taken on the ongoing climate catastrophe and other critical environmental.
  659. Lobbying for Lives
    Lessons from the Front

    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 1989
  660. Lobbying for Your Cause
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1986
  661. Lobbyists for the havens: ICIJ's guide to the offshore system's defenders
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Across the world, tax havens are under attack. Leading global organizations like the G20 and OECD have put cracking down on offshore tax avoidance at the top of their agendas. Ambitious plans for automatic sharing of tax data between countries are in the works.
  662. Lobbyists Mourn House Speaker John Boehner's Departure
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    House Speaker John Boehner’s surprise resignation on Friday was reason to celebrate for members of his own party who often complained that he let corporate lobbyists exercise undue influence over Congress. For lobbyists, Boehner's announcement was a reason to mourn.
  663. Local and Organic Food and Farming
    The Real Gold Standard

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    When the local chemical grower tells you that local is better than organic, tell them that they should switch to organic so that you can trust their food to be safe, clean, inspected, and environmentally friendly. Local food is not the gold standard, and may not even be safe. Local-organic is the gold standard.
  664. Local currency
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A currency not backed by a national government (and not necessarily legal tender), and intended to trade only in a small area. This amounts to a formalization of the barter system, a useful tool for raising awareness of the state of the local economy.
  665. Local Exchange Trading Systems
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Local, non-profit exchange networks in which goods and services can be traded without the need for printed currency.
  666. "Local" Goes Loco
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Buying "local" has become a popular movement in American agriculture and commerce. Some corporations, however, are taking "local" a step farther.
  667. Local Harvest for an Urban Landscape
    Laying the Foundations for Sustainable Local Food Systems

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    How do you create a locally harvested food system for a city of 100,000?
  668. Local Places In the Age of the Global City 
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1996
    The contributors to Local Places look at the complex social, economic and political contexts of cities in the 1990s and suggest that cities and urbanity, while part of the problem, also need to be considered as part of the solution.
  669. Local schools perpetuate social inequality says survey
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    The more money your parents earn, the better you are likely to do in school. This is the conclusion of a massive study of the Toronto school population just released by the Board of Education.
  670. Location Tracking: A Pervasive Problem in Modern Technology
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    NSA is tracking people around the Internet and the physical world. These newly-revealed techniques hijacked personal information that was being transmitted for some commercial purpose, converting it into a tool for surveillance. One technique involved web cookies, while another involved mobile apps disclosing their location to location-based services.
  671. Lock 'Em Up
    The Prison State

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Without a doubt, most of those enmeshed in the (in)justice system are not dangers to society and would not have been in it at all in a society that wasn't so racist and so shot through with every kind of social and economic inequality. Unfortunately, whatever the reasons why so many men and women have been denied their freedom, once the numbers began to rise dramatically, constituencies came into being: lawyers, police, probation officers, prison guards and staff, drug and alcohol rehabilitation counselors, sex offender counselors, vendors of all sorts, clerks and other clerical support staff, court officers, judges, community service employers that have a strong stake in milking the new cash cow.
  672. Lockdown America 
    Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1999   Published: 2008
    Why is criminal justice so central to American politics? Lockdown America not only documents the horrors and absurdities of militarized policing, prisons, a fortified border, and the federalization of the war on crime, it also explains the political and economic history behind the massive crackdown.
  673. Lockdown High
    When the Schoolhouse Becomes a Jailhouse

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2011
    Schools in the U.S. are increasingly imposed unprecedented restrictions on students' rights, dignity, and educational freedom. In what is being called the school-to-prison pipleline, the police and practices of the juvenile justice system, including so-called "zero tolerance" policies, are pushing students out of schools.
  674. Lockdown: the end of growth in the tar sands
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Climate change is here and now. And if world leaders had heeded scientific warnings 30 years ago, 20 years ago, 10 years ago, or even as recently as the Copenhagen climate conference in 2009 -- it's possible we would be well on our way to securing the decarbonized future that the world desperately needs.
  675. Locked Out! One Wife's Story of the Staley Struggle
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1997
  676. Elizabeth F. Loftus
    Resource Type: Website
    Web site of Elizabeth Loftus, memory researcher and psychologist.
  677. Logger's death
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1989
  678. The Logic behind Mass Spying: Empire and Cyber Imperialism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Revelations about the long-term global, intrusive spying by the US National Security Agency (NSA) and other allied intelligence apparatuses have provoked widespread protests and indignation and threatened ties between erstwhile imperial allies.
  679. The Logic of Marx's Capital
    Replies to Hegelian Criticisms

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1990
  680. The Logic of Murder in Israel: A Culture of Impunity in Full View of the Entire World
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    "Whether he made a mistake or not, is a trivial question," said an Israeli Jewish man who joined large protests throughout Israel in support of a soldier who calmly, and with precision, killed a wounded Palestinian man in al-Khalil (Hebron). The protesting Jewish man described Palestinians as 'barbaric', 'bestial', who should not be perceived as people.
  681. The Logic of Murder in Israel: A Culture of Impunity in Full View of the Entire World
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    "Whether he made a mistake or not, is a trivial question," said an Israeli Jewish man who joined large protests throughout Israel in support of a soldier who calmly, and with precision, killed a wounded Palestinian man in al-Khalil (Hebron). The protesting Jewish man described Palestinians as 'barbaric', 'bestial', who should not be perceived as people.
  682. The Logic of Torture
    It's About Domination, Not Intelligence

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Torture seems to have been as bureaucratic as any other government program, with the interrogators more obsessed about memos and ass covering and obscure turf wars than stopping the progress of ticking time bombs. Like all the other Beltway drones, the CIA’s team kissed up and kicked down, sucking up to their superiors while they tortured men to death.
  683. Logics of Disintegration
    Post-Structuralist Thought and the Claims of Critical Theory

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1987
    Essays summarizing and critiquing post-structuralism. According to Dews, for all its posture of radicality, post-structuralist thought is itself bound to certain vulnerable assumptions. Dews argues that the fatal philosophical fault of post-structuralism is its failure to preserve the proper dialectical distinction between the subject and the object.
  684. London Central America Group
    Organization profile published 1982

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1982
    Inactive/Defunct Organization
  685. London Dock Strike of 1889
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    An industrial dispute involving dock workers in the Port of London which resulted in a victory for the strikers and established strong trade unions amongst London dockers.
  686. The London Hanged
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1993   Published: 2006
    History and examination of how punishment and crime changed to reflect the changes taking place in society itself.
  687. London matchgirls strike of 1888
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A strike of the women and teenage girls working at a match factory in London.
  688. London Terror Attack: It's Time to Confront Wahhabism and Saudi Arabia
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    In the UK people are dealing with the aftermath of yet another terrorist attack in which innocent civilians were butchered and injured, this time in London. It is time for an honest conversation about Wahhabism, specifically the part this Saudi-sponsored ideology plays in radicalizing young Muslims both across the Arab and Muslim world and in the West.
  689. London tube posters
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Israel and its supporters are used to having the mainstream media repeat their talking points. We put up around 150 posters on the tube to shine a spotlight on the support Israel gets from the UK: the government, arms industry, and companies like G4S. Turns out the world loves/hates our tube ads.
  690. The Loneliest Library in the World
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    At 73, P.V. Chinnathambi runs one of the loneliest libraries anywhere. In the middle of the forested wilderness of Kerala’s Idukki district, the library’s 160-books — all classics — are regularly borrowed, read, and returned by poor, Muthavan adivasis.
  691. A Long and Terrible Shadow
    White Values, Native Rights in the Americas 1492-1992

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1991
    Against the odds, Native peoples have waged a tenacious struggle to survive and the re-emerge as distinct cultures.
  692. As Long as the River Runs
    Hydroelectric Development and Native Communities in Western Canada

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1988
    Waldram examines the politics of hydroelectric dam construction in the vast hinterland of the Canadian Northwest, focusing particularly on the negotiations and agreements between the developers and the Native residents.
  693. Long Before "Boondocks"
    Against The Current vol. 138

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    During the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s Black newspapers presented a picture of African-American life rendered invisible by the white media. Like white newspapers, they carried a funnies page where Black readers faithfully followed the foibles of cartoon characters like Ollie Harrington’s “Brother Bootsie,” Samuel Milai’s “Bucky” and Wilbert Holloway’s “Sunny Boy Sam.”
  694. Long Distance High Tech State Terror
    Kill Chain: The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Book review of Andrew Cockburn's Kill Chain: The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins.
  695. Long Distance Revolutionary
    A Journal with Mumia Abu-Jamal

    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 2012
    The life and situation of Mumia Abu Jamal.
  696. The Long Game for the Long War
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Fourteen years in, and the Terror War is raging on, mass-producing exactly what it was supposed to eliminate: terrorism and chaos. Western intervention has racked up at least six jihadi-overrun failed states throughout the Greater Middle East: Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Somalia, and Yemen. The scope and scale of the imposed civilizational meltdown have become so great that the West itself has been increasingly inundated by its wreckage (in the form of refugees) and stung by its shrapnel (in the form of terrorist attacks).
  697. The Long Haul 
    An autobiography

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1990   Published: 1991
    Myles Horton tells the story of the Highlander Folk School. A major catalyst for social change in the United States for over sixty years, this school has touched the lives of so many people, including Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks, and Eleanor Roosevelt.
  698. The Long Loneliness
    Resource Type: Book
  699. Long March, Short Spring 
    The Student Uprising at Home and Abroad

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1969
    An examination of the world student rebellions of the late 1960s.
  700. Long March to Revolution
    Against The Current vol. 138

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    Revolutions at first appearance may seem sudden or spontaneous events. But they are also built over the long-haul, through generations of resistance and the preservation in collective memory of traditions of struggle and solidarity.
  701. The Long Shadow of Mass Incarceration: A Generation Imprisoned
    Against The Current vol. 115

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2005
    This January, the U.S. Supreme Court started what may prove to be a fundamental overhaul of criminal sentencing in federal jurisdictions. In two interrelated cases, Booker and Fanfan, the court struck down key elements of the current federal sentencing system, put in place over twenty years ago when Congress passed the Sentencing Reform Act.
  702. The long struggle of the Palestinians in Israel
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    An excerpt from the book "Chief Complaint: A Country Doctor's Tales of Life in Galilee." The essay talks about Palestinian social, economic and territorial displacement.
  703. The Long Twentieth Century
    Money, Power and the Origins of Our Times

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1994   Published: 2009
    A comprehensive analysis of the development of world capitalism over the millennium.The Long Twentieth Century traces the epochal shifts in the relationship between capital accumulation and state formation over a 700-year period.
  704. A Long View from the Left
    Memoirs of an American Revolutionary

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1972
    A memoir of a member of the American Communist Party.
  705. The Long War at Staley
    Against The Current vol. 149

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Staley recounts the epic struggle of workers in a corn-processing plant in Decatur, Illinois in the 1990s and provides insight into how a pivotal struggle ended in defeat. That ending was not inevitable.
  706. Long Way From Home 
    The story of the Sixties generation in Canada

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1980
    An account of the upheavals and transformations experienced by those who came of age in the 1960s, a time when international currents of change intersected with specifically Canadian events and circumstances.
  707. Longer Hours, Fewer Jobs
    Employment and Unemployment in the United States

    Resource Type: Book
    Explains how employment and unemployment are inextricably connected in an economic system where employers are driven by the search for profits.
  708. The Longest Occupation
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    In the current maelstrom of imperialism and regional wars, Israeli military supremacy, Islamic fundamentalism and the destruction of whole societies and even civilizations in Iraq and Syria, the very possibility of any positive outcome sometimes seems remote.
  709. Longuet, Jenny
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Socialist activist. Daughter of Jenny von Westphalen and Karl Marx. (1844-1883).
  710. A Look at Skid Row 1976 - Where is it Going?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    A final report to the Non-Medical Use of Drugs Directorate on trends in Skid-Row movement.
  711. A Look At The Reality Behind The Rhetoric of Normalization
    Organization profile published 1987

    Resource Type: Organization
    First Published: 1987
  712. Look Me in the Eye
    Old Woman, Aging, and Ageism

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1985
    About ageism, aging, and the inevitability and imminence of death.
  713. The Look of Silence
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 2014
    The Look of Silence (Indonesian: Senyap, "Silence") is a 2014 internationally co-produced documentary film directed by Joshua Oppenheimer about the Indonesian killings of 1965–66. The film is a companion piece to Oppenheimer's 2012 documentary The Act of Killing.
  714. Looking at Che Guevara
    Against The Current vol. 143

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    That Che Guevara's silhouette has found its way onto walls and T-shirts around the world is nothing new. A traveler through Latin America in the 1970s and 1980s would have seen Che’s face spray-painted onto walls in working-class neighborhoods. In revolutionary Nicaragua Che graffiti was officially sanctioned, as was the massive outpouring of pro-Sandinista, anti-contra wall art. As a fallen martyr Che symbolized commitment and hope for anti-imperialist guerilla organizations throughout the Americas.
  715. Looking at Israel from the other side
    Book Review

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2006
    A review of two books: Sharon and My Mother-in-Law: Ramallah Diaries, by Suad Amiry, and The Other Side of Israel: My Journey Across the Jewish/Arab Divide.
  716. Looking at the Conference
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    Ashley Chester comments on the Popular Education Conference.
  717. Looking Back -- and Ahead
    Against The Current vol. 133

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    The year 1968 stands out as one of those pivotal years on multiple political and cultural levels. Against the Current will devote considerable space to discussing what the upheavals of that year meant then, and now. Conventional media retrospectives will concentrate on the spectacular and appalling visual images — street rioting over the Vietnam War and the Martin Luther King assassination; the murder of Robert Kennedy; the debacle of the Democratic convention in Chicago, with police beating heads while Hubert Humphrey proclaimed “the politics of joy” in his nomination acceptance speech.
  718. Looking back in anger - The Miners' Strike 30 years on
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    With new papers released by the National Archives about the Miners’ Strike Chris Strafford caught up with Harry Paterson, author of the upcoming book Look Back in Anger: The Miners’ Strike in Nottinghamshire 30 years on, to discuss what we have learnt.
  719. Looking Back on Occupy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    A look at the Occupy movement and its relevance today.
  720. Looking for Democracy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1989
    Instead of sitting on the sidelines congratulating ourselves on how wonderfully free and democratic we are, we should be pressing for a radical democratization of our own society.
  721. Looking for Trouble
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    Why are we still prospecting for oil when we can't afford to use existing reserves?
  722. Looking Good In Print
    A Guide to Basic Design for Desktop Publishing.

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1988
  723. Looking Inside the Education Crisis
    Book review

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    A book review of The Future of our Schools:Teachers Unions and Social Justice by Lois Weiner.
  724. Looking North for Labor Revival?
    Against The Current vol. 155

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    It isn't news that the U.S. labor movement is in profound crisis, and has been for some time. Readers of this magazine are by now all too familiar with the symptoms: waves of concessionary contracts, eroding labor laws, vicious government and employer attacks, defeated strikes, the precipitous decline in union membership.
  725. Looking Shell in the eye: Ken Saro-Wiwa's last writings
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1995   Published: 2013
    Author Ken Saro-Wiwa spear-headed the resistance of the Ogoni people of the Niger Delta against environmental devastation from oil drilling and ruptured oil pipelines. He was executed in 1995. Dr Laurence Cox introduces his last letters.
  726. Looming Climate Catastrophe: Extinction in Nine Years?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Reports from the Arctic are getting pretty grim.
  727. The Looming Crisis of World Capitalism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1998
    MARXIST ECONOMISTS ARE famous for having accurately predicted seven out of the last one international economic crisis. Perhaps for that reason, many in recent times have been unusually cautious about once again "crying wolf," even as the evidence of international economic dislocation has mounted around them. Today, however, prediction is no longer necessary. The international economy, outside of the United States and Europe—perhaps 50% of the world—is already experiencing...
  728. Loon Directory
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1992
  729. Loon, interrupted: Chicks dying, social chaos. Is their comeback unraveling?
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    It’s a scenario playing out across North America -- loons are raising fewer chicks to fledgling stage than they were two decades ago. Researchers suspect that hormone-disrupting pollutants such as flame retardants may have eroded the birds' delicate social structure and contributed to a mysterious drop in Squam Lake’s loon population. In other parts of the Northeast, scientists have implicated acid rain and mercury in declining numbers of chicks.
  730. Loosing Another Round
    Against The Current vol. 135

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2008
    The strike at American Axle, which we reported on in ATC 134, ended when workers voted to go back under a concessionary agreement. The 25% who voted no didn’t feel they were close to winning but they said they couldn’t look themselves in the mirror if they voted yes. Yet the strike idled nearly three dozen assembly plants and put enormous pressure on GM. The UAW did not develop a longterm relationship with the union at the AAM plant in Mexico. All during the strike that plant produced 6,000 axles a day, thus enabling GM to keep some production going.
  731. Looting Africa: Canadian Company Eyes Gold in Democratic Republic of Congo
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    A Canadian mining company is prepared to bring hundreds of millions of dollars in gold out of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, one of Africa's most embattled and poorest countries. One expert says that to extract gold, the company will have to cut a deal with a violent African militia.
  732. The Looting Machine Called Capitalism
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    I have come to the conclusion that capitalism is successful primarily because it can impose the majority of the costs associated with its economic activities on outside parties and on the environment. In other words, capitalists make profits because their costs are externalized and born by others. In the US, society and the environment have to pick up the tab produced by capitalist activity.
  733. The Looting Machine: Warlords, Tycoons, Smugglers and the Systematic Theft of Africa's Wealth
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2015
    Augustin Katumba Mwanke was a young banker in South Africa when persuaded to return home to help rebuild the Democratic republic of the Congo by the new government of Laurent Kabila. A year later he got a call from the president, a fellow Katangan, and was stunned to be appointed governor of an area the size of France, with control over some of the world's most valuable mineral seams.
  734. The Looting Stage of Capitalism: Germany's Assault on the IMF
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Having successfully used the EU to conquer the Greek people by turning the Greek "leftwing" government into a pawn of Germany's banks, Germany now finds the IMF in the way of its plan to loot Greece into oblivion.
  735. Loray Mill Strike
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    One of the best known labor strikes in the history of the United States.
  736. Lee Lorch
    Wikipedia article

    Resource Type: Article
    Lee Lorch (1915 – 2014) was a mathematician and an early civil rights activist.
  737. The Lordstown Struggle and the Real Crisis in Production
    Solidarity Pamphlet 45

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1973
    An attempt to document some important tendencies developing in the motor car industry but which are relevant to modern production as a whole.
  738. Lore
    Capturing Traditional Environmental Knowledge

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1993
  739. Loren Goldner speaks on the current capitalist crisis
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 2010
    Writer and activist Loren Goldner contextualizes the current economic crisis and class struggles in a theory of capitalist development.
  740. Los Angeles: Assessing D2K Protests
    Against The Current vol. 89

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2000
    More than 10,000 activists gathered in LA for the Democratic convention protests August 5-18. The main protest held Monday, August 12 drew around 10,000 activists. Three thousand had gathered for the Mumia march held the previous day.
  741. The Los Angeles Bus Riders Union
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1997
    The Bus Riders Union began as an outgrowth of the Labor/Community Strategy Center's "Equity in Transportation Project," a policy analysis group which to study the transportation problems of the urban poor. What they discovered was an increasingly polarized allocation of public resources based on race.
  742. Los Angeles: Hands Up, Fight Back
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    A basic and incomplete chronological overview... Protests and marches continued throughout the fall in Los Angeles, linking the Ezell Ford, Michael Brown, Eric Garner and Antonio Martin murders together.
  743. Loser Take All
    Election Fraud and The Subversion of Democracy, 2000 - 2008

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2008
    The U.S. election system is a shambles, run by private corporations with a partisan agenda, and largely based on a technology that anyone can rig.
  744. Losing Toronto: How Olivia Chow and the left may be giving away an election
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    As we head into the Labour Day weekend that may be accurately deemed to be the start of the homestretch of Toronto's very long mayoral and council election season, the news is not good for leftists or progressives in the city.
  745. Loss of Faith
    How the Air India Bombers Got Away with Murder

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2005
    An account of the Air India Bombing trial and investigations.
  746. Loss of Librarians Devastating to Science and Knowledge in Canada
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    The closure of federal libraries and loss of specialized librarians impacts negatively on the state of science and knowledge in Canada.
  747. Loss of night: Artificial light disrupts sex hormones of birds
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Around the world, scientists seeking to answer that question have gathered mounting evidence that city lights are altering the basic physiology of urban birds, suppressing their estrogen and testosterone and changing their singing, mating and feeding behaviors. One lab experiment showed that male blackbirds did not develop reproductive organs during the second year of exposure to continuous light at night.
  748. The Lost History of Antifa
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    72 years after the triumph over Nazism, we look back to postwar Germany, when socialists gave birth to Antifa.
  749. The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum
    Resource Type: Film/Video
    First Published: 1975
    German original title: Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum. A young woman's life is scrutinized by police and tabloid press after she spends the night with a suspected terrorist.
  750. Lost Liberties in the Age of Obama
    Against The Current vol. 145

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    When World War II broke out on September l, l939 the poet W.H. Auden sat in a bar on 42nd Street and penned a poem using that fateful date for its title. He reflected that the past ten years had been “a low dishonest decade.” And so has our last ten.
  751. Lost Nuke: The Last Flight of Bomber 075
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2012
    In a story seemingly drawn out of a Hollywood action script, the tale of America's first "broken arrow" - code for a lost nuclear weapon - is gripping stuff. The fact that the weapon disappeared over Canadian airspace makes this a unique chapter in Canadian aviation history.
  752. The Lost Partisans
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    Italy's April 25 holiday marks the anniversary of the country's liberation from fascism. This day in 1945, antifascist partisan units freed the northern industrial centers of Milan and Turin from the grip of Hitler and Mussolini's remaining loyalists, after Allied forces had swept through the country. Just three days later, in a humiliating epitaph to the twenty-year regime, partisans captured and executed il Duce and his entourage, hanging them upside down in Milan's Piazzale Loreto. Now the resistance is remembered more as representing 'national unity' than working-class resistance to fascism.
  753. The Lost Revolution
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    A discussion of the Haitian revolution, read through the lens of Julia Gaffield's paper on the lost and found Haitian Declaration of Independence.
  754. The Lost Revolution 
    Germany 1918 to 1923

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1982   Published: 2008
    Without an understanding of the defeat of the revolution in post-World War I Germany, the great barbarisms that swept Europe in the 1930s cannot be understood. Here, Chris Harman unearths the history of the lost revolution, and reveals its lessons for the future struggles for a better world.
  755. Lost, leaking H-Bomb 'no danger'
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1989
  756. Lotta Continua
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Italian left-wing organization.
  757. Louder Voices: The Corporate Welfare Bums
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1972
    NDP leader Davis Lewis provides facts and analysis to support his charge that "government and big business are holding hands -- in your pocket."
  758. Louisianans, Oil & Petro-Addiction
    Against The Current vol. 147

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    The Deepwater Horizon oil horror has again focused the nation on South Louisiana. For the second time in less than five years, we are on the front pages of America’s newspapers. Again, this region is being misunderstood. Easy explanations miss the reasons why this area is so vulnerable, and why we in Louisiana are paying for the American economy’s dependence upon petroleum.
  759. Louisiana's For-Profit Prisons
    How Long Jail Sentences for Trivial Offences Enrich Local Sheriffs' and Police Departments

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    In Louisiana, writing a cheque that bounces still carries a sentence of up to 10 years in prison, and the minimum sentence for a repeat burglary offender is 24 years without parole.
  760. Louisiana's profitable prisons
    Inside America

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2013
    Long jail sentences for trivial offences enrich local sheriffs' and police departments in the state of Louisiana -- and keep the local economy going.
  761. Lount, Samuel
    Connexipedia: Article in the Canadian Encyclopedia

    Resource Type: Article
    Blacksmith, politician, rebel. (1791-1838).
  762. L'ouverture, Toussaint
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Leader of the Haitian Revolution. (1743-1803).
  763. Love, Anarchy, and Emma Goldman
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1984   Published: 1990
  764. Love and Capital 
    Karl and Jenny Marx and the Birth of a Revolution

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2011
    A biography of Karl and Jenny Marx.
  765. Love in the Time of Israel's War on Africans
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Sheen discusses the unchecked popular hostility and racism towards Africans in Israel.
  766. Love & Politics
    Resource Type: Book
    Inactive/Defunct Periodical
    Judith Malina and her longtime companion-comrade Julian Beck founded the Living Theatre in New York City in 1947. In these poems Judith shares her anguish at injustices inflicted by bureaucratic authority: the rewards she found in love and collaboration with Julian: her difficulties in making some life-defining choices.
  767. Love, Therapy And Politics
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1976
    This ia a collection of articles compiled from the first year of "Issues in Radical Therapy." It includes political perspectives on therapy, group dynamics, male/female sex roles, and other concerns relevant to the practice of radical therapy.
  768. Loving More
    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 1991
    A newsletter published by PEP (Polyfidelitious Educational Productions), a group marriage journal and network. Previous title was PEPTALK; name was changed to Loving More starting with the Spring 1991 issue (Issue #26), and to Loving More Magazine ins 1994. Some copies of this publication are in the Connexions Archive.
    See also the Loving More website www.lovemore.com.
  769. Loving More
    New Models for Relationships

    Resource Type: Website
    Organization and resource for people who who wish to move beyond traditional monogamy.
  770. Lowell Mill Girls
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Female textile workers in Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 19th century.
  771. Lower classes quicker to show compassion in the face of suffering
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    Researchers have found that people in the lower socio-economic classes are more physiologically attuned to suffering, and quicker to express compassion than their more affluent counterparts. By comparison, individuals in the upper middle and upper classes were less able to detect and respond to the distress signals of others.
  772. Lucasville
    The untold story of a prison uprising

    Resource Type: Book
    Published: 2004
    In 1993 prisoners took control of the maximum-security prison in Lucasville, Ohio. Their 11-day ordeal started with a dispute between the warden and Muslim prisoners and ended with a negotiated settlement, but only after nine prisoners and one hostage had been killed.This offers the inside story of the uprising, the subsequent trial and sentencing.
  773. The Lucifer Effect
    Understanding How Good People turn Evil

    Resource Type: Book
    Philip Zimbardo as a young psychologist at Stanford conducted the seminal experiment on undergratuate students dividing them into "guards" and "prisoners". After the release of the Abu Graib tapes he revisits the question of the nature of evil and the systems and circumstances that foster it. While the focus of the book is on Abu Graib he begins with an examination of some of the 20th century's worst examples of man's inhumanity to man. He chronicles the dehumanization of the guards at Abu Graib and the policies of Rumsfeld, the CIA and US military to facilitate the serious and widespread violations of the law. He argues that all of us are capable of monstrous acts when we are "caught up in the crucible of social forces".
  774. Luddites
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A social movement of British textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested - often by destroying mechanized looms - against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which were leaving them without work.
  775. Ludlow massacre
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    The violent deaths of 20 people, 11 of them children, during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914.
  776. Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1886
  777. Lukács, Georg
    Connexipedia: Entry in Encyclopedia of Marxism Glossary of People

    Resource Type: Article
    Hungarian Marxist philosopher, writer, literary critic, and socialist. (1885-1971).
  778. Lukács, György
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Hungarian Marxist philosopher, writer, literary critic, and socialist. (1885-1971).
  779. Luminist Archives
    Resource Type: Website
    Documents in a variety of formats are made available here as a free public service. The Periodical Archive contains a substantial collection of dissident and counter-cultural magazines, newspapers, journals and newsletters.
  780. Lupeni Strike of 1929
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Near the end of 1928, miners' leaders in the Jiu Valley had begun agitating for an extension of their collective work contract.The two sides could not reach an agreement. A trial, and then a strike ensued. The strike was glorified by the Communist regime as a symbol of the struggle of labour against capitalism.
  781. Lupercalian Valentine's Day
    Whip It Good

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2011
    The tradition of honoring all-inclusive, natural LUST around February 14 pre-dates classical times when Ancient Romans celebrated the Lupercalia, an archaic festival of the now obscure old shepherd god Lupercus (or perhaps Faunus, the Roman Pan), and a celebration of communal sexuality, purification, fertility, the rush of hormones, the howl of the wolf, the crack of the whip and the coming of Spring.
  782. Des luttes et des rires de femmes
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1981
  783. Luttons pour des comptoirs de luttes de classes
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1978
  784. Lutzenberger, José
    Connexipedia: Right Livelihood Award Winner

    Resource Type: Article
    Environmentalist and organic farming advocate (1926-2002).
  785. Luxembourg Puts Journalist and Whistleblowers On Trial for Ruining Its "Magical Fairyland" of Tax Avoidance
    Resource Type: Unclassified
    First Published: 2016
    Luxembourg istrying to throw two French whistleblowers and a journalist in prison for their role in the "LuxLeaks" exposé that revealed the tiny country’s outsized role in enabling corporate tax avoidance.
  786. Luxembourgian general strike 1942
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A pacific resistance movement organised within a short time period to protest against a directive that incorporated the Luxembourg youth into the Wehrmacht.
  787. Luxemburg, Müller and the Berlin workers' and soldiers' councils
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    Rose reviews and discusses two important books about the German Revolution, "Working-Class Politics in the German Revolution: Richard Müller, the Revolutionary Shop Stewards and the Origins of the Council Movement", and "The German Left and the Weimar Republic: A Selection of Documents".
  788. Rosa Luxemburg 
    A letter about Rosa Luxemburg's contribution to Marxism

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2000
    In a time when the socialist movement was evolving in directions increasingly removed from Marx's positions -- Social Democratic reformism on the one hand, and Leninist bureaucratic centralism on the other -- Luxemburg was the leading exponent of a Marxism in the spirit of Marx.
  789. Luxemburg, Rosa
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    Marxist revolutionary. (1871-1919).
  790. Luxemburg, Rosa
    Connexipedia: Entry in Encyclopedia of Marxism Glossary of People

    Resource Type: Article
    Marxist revolutionary. (1871-1919).
  791. Luxemburg versus Lenin 
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1935
    On many essential points the conceptions of Luxemburg differ from those of Lenin as day from night, or -- the same thing -- as the problems of the bourgeois revolution from those of the proletarian.
  792. Luxemburg, Rosa - Writings - Index
    Resource Type: Article
    Writings of Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919).
  793. Luxemburgism
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    A revolutionary theory within Marxism and communism based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg.
  794. Luxemburg's Theory of Accumulation
    How it Differed with Marx and Lenin

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1946
    Dunayevskaya argues that Luxemburg was on the wrong track in her attempt to revise the conclusions of Marx's Capital.
  795. The lying silence of those who know
    Holocaust Denied

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    In every war, Israel has had the same objective: the expulsion of the native people and the theft or more and more land.
  796. Lying to Ourselves About the Air War
    The Killers

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2014
    Most US citizens have never been subjected to an air raid. They have never heard the roar of planes flying high above them while an air raid siren wails, its whine competing with the planes’ roar and piercing the audio centers of the brain making sequential thought difficult if not impossible. Nor have they heard the sound of bombs — canisters filled with high explosives and fire — whistling as they fall through the air toward their targets on the ground. Nor have most US citizens ever sat in a bomb shelter wondering if their homes will survive the aerial assault they are hoping to survive themselves.
  797. Lynching Free Speech
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    In Charlottesville, as in so many parts of the country right now, the conflict is over how to reconcile the nation's checkered past, particularly as it relates to slavery, with the present need to sanitize the environment of anything -- words and images -- that might cause offense, especially if it's a Confederate flag or monument.
  798. Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2015
    A report documenting the lynching of millions of African Americans from the Civil War until the Second World War. The work maintains that America's legacy of racial terror must be more fully addressed if racial justice is to be achieved.
  799. The Lynching of Ted Smith
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    An account of the brutal slaying of Ted Smith, an African American teen who was burned at the stake by a mob of white men in Greenville, Texas on July 28, 1908.
  800. Lynd, Staughton
    Connexipedia Article

    Resource Type: Article
    American author, activist, historian, and lawyer. (Born 1929).
  801. Lynne Stewart: 1939-2017
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2017
    Radical attorney Lynne Stewart died in Brooklyn on March 7, 2017 at the age of 77. The immediate cause was a series of strokes which, together with metastasized breast cancer, finally drained the life out of this tireless fighter for the oppressed. Lynne's death will be keenly felt by the incarcerated opponents of the U.S. government, for whom she fought until the end. Without her, the world is a lonelier, crueler place for these prisoners and their families.