Black History & Identity

Below are groups and resources (books, articles, websites, etc.) related to this topic. Click on an item’s title to go its resource page with author, publisher, description/abstract and other details, a link to the full text if available, as well as links to related topics in the Subject Index. You can also browse the Title, Author, Subject, Chronological, Dewey, LoC, and Format indexes, or use the Search box.
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Connexions Library

African American Folksong and American Cultural Politics: The Lawrence Gellert Story
Conforth, Bruce M.
Book
2013
Story of the collection of African American folk music compiled by Lawrence Gellert. Compiled between the World Wars, the recordings were adopted by the American Left as the voice of the American prol...
The All-American Skin Game
Crouch, Stanley
Book
1995
Crouch firmly believes that Blacks, having catalyzed the historical struggle of Americans to realize democratic ideals, have at least as much responsibility to maintain them as other groups, and he is...
American Negro Slavery (Third Edition): A Modern Reader
Weinstein, Allen; Gatell, Frank Otto; Sarasohn, David (eds.)
Book
1968
Incorporating significant and at times controversial literature on questions about the institution of slavery and the social and cultural response of the slaves to their enslavement, this collection o...
American Primitive in Red, Black and White: Race and Class in the U.S.
Goldner, Loren
Article
1989
The centrality of race in the formation of the American working class, its inseparability from the question of class, can be stated very succinctly: in 1848 and 1968, when working-class upsurges explo...
The Anatomy of A Rebellion: Against The Current vol. 84
Ortiz, Paul
Article
2000
The first time I traveled to Los Angeles with a comrade of mine in the labor movement, I had one of those sharp educational experiences that cannot be replicated in the classroom.
Assata: An Autobiography
Shakur, Assata
Book
1989
On May 2, 1973, Black Panther Assata Shakur, aka Joanne Chesimard, lay in the hospital, close to death, handcuffed to her bed while local, state and federal police attempted to question her about the ...
The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Malcolm, X
Book
1964
The personal story of the man who become the most dynamic leader of the Black Revolution in the United States, completed shortly before his assassination.
Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient Views of Blacks
Snowden, Frank
Book
1991
In this richly-illustrated account of black-white contacts from the Pharaohs to the Caesars, Frank M. Snowden demonstrates that the ancients did not discriminate against blacks because of their colour...
Beyond Black and White: Transforming African-American Politics
Marable, Manning
Book
1995
Marable argues for a new "transformationalist" approach in which there is an emergence of a new black cultural identity which also includes all the poor and exploited in united struggle against oppres...
Black American Feminisms
Website
An extensive bibliography of black American Feminist thought from across the disciplines.
The Black Belt Communists
Kelley, Robin D. G.
Article
2015
During the Great Depression, black sharecroppers and the Communist Party waged war against tenant farming in the South.
Black Canadians: A Long Line of Fighters
Tulloch, Headley
Book
1975
Discusses the roles played by black Canadians in history.
Black History and the Class Struggle
Serial Publication (Periodical)
2005
Articles include: "A Life in the Black Panther Party — We Want Freedom — A Review of a Book by Mumia Abu-Jamal," "How the Liberals and Reformists Derailed the Struggle for Integration — For Black Libe...
Black Immigrants, 'Model' Minority? Plus: Don Imus
Dickerson, Debra
Article
2008
'Black' is a label which obscures more than it illuminates.
The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution
James, C.L.R.
Book
1938
An account of the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1803.
Black Liberation and the Fight for a Socialist America
Samuels, Reuben
Article
2010
From slavery to convict labour, from the chain gang to the assembly line, American capitalism has been built upon the lash-scarred backs of black labour. Any organization that claims a revolutionary p...
Black or White? The origins of racism: New Internationalist March 1985
Serial Publication (Periodical)
1985
A discussion of racism as a white problem, including articles on South Africa, New Zealand, mixed-race families and multi-culturalism. The issue looks back at the history of racism, and to the future ...
The Black Panthers Reconsidered
Farber, Samuel
Article
1996
To understand the Black Panther Party, we must place it in the context of the exhaustion of the Civil Rights movement by the mid-to-late sixties.
Black Women's Narratives of Slavery, the Civil War and Reconstruction
Wilson, Carla
Article
2005
Anyone who has ever wondered how black people managed to struggle and survive the hideous tortures meted out during slavery and afterward would gain from reading these books. They offer inspiration to...
Booker's Place: A Mississippi Story
De Felitta, Raymond
Film/Video
2012
In 1965, African-American waiter Booker Wright spoke out in a television documentary, outraging many white Southerners and resulting in his murder. Years later, the filmmaker's son returns to examine...
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community
Putnam, Robert D.
Book
2000
Bowling Alone documents the rise and fall of community activity in the twentieth century in the United States and the social changes this reflects. It offers all the evidence, the confirmatory and the...
Challenging the Mississippi Fire Bombers: Memories of Mississippi 1964-65
Dann, Jim
Book
2013
With a firsthand account of the details and thoughtful descriptions of key people on the front lines, author Jim Dann brings the historic period, the June 1964 civil rights struggle to register as man...
Class Notes: Posing As Politics and Other Thoughts on the American Scene
Reed, Adolph L.
Book
2001
Reed argues against the solipsistic approaches of cultural or identity politics, and in favour of class-based political interpretation and action. Class Notes moves on to tackle race relations, ethnic...
Class-Struggle Road to Black Freedom: Part Two: Marxism vs. the Myth of "White Skin Privilege"
Article
2015
The victory of the socialist revolution in this country will be achieved through the united struggle of black and white workers.
Class-Struggle Road to Black Freedom: Part One: The Roots of Black Oppression
Article
2015
The purpose of this talk is to motivate a Marxist materialist program for the fight for black freedom as opposed to the idealism embodied in both black nationalism and guilty white liberalism, includi...
The Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement: For Black Liberation Through Socialist Revolution!
Cone, Paul
Article
2010
The mass mobilization of black people in the Southern civil rights movement, and the subsequent Northern ghetto rebellions, disrupted and challenged the racist American bourgeois order. It shattered t...
Connexions Library: Race, Racism, Ethnicity, Multiculturalism Focus
Website
Selected articles, books, websites and other resources on race, racism, ethnicity, multiculturalism, identity.
Convict Labor in America: Book review
Ortiz, Paul
Article
1998
Convict labour, like antebellum slavery, was an American way of life, a cultural practice that tied northern capitalists, plantation owners, university-trained social reformers, federal officials and ...
The day the Klan messed with the wrong people
gjohnsit
Article
2010
By the mid-1950's the Civil Rights Movement was gaining momentum and the KKK decided they had to fight back. James W. "Catfish" Cole, the Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan in South Carolina, made a cri...
Defeat of Reconstruction and the Betrayal of Black Freedom Part One
Wilde, Alan
Article
2014
Reconstruction was a tumultuous, brief and extraordinary period of American history defined by an unprecedented experiment in interracial democracy. It was an era of exceptional developments, all taki...
Defeat of Reconstruction and the Betrayal of Black Freedom Part Two
Wilde, Alan
Article
2014
During Reconstruction, black people fought to assert their American-ness. Throughout the South, it was blacks and their allies who would march, parade and celebrate the Fourth of July, but not out of ...
The Education of Black People: Ten Critiques, 1906-1960
Du Bois, W.E.B.
Book
Calls for great energy and initiative; for African Americans controlling their own lives, and for continued experimentation and innovation, while keeping education#s fundamentally radical nature in vi...
Five Centuries of Imperialism and Resistance: Vol. 8: 1492-1992
Bourgeault, Ron et. al.
Book
1992
A collection of poems and essays giving various perspectives on resistance to imperialism and capitalism.
For Black Liberation Through Socialist Revolution! Part Two: How the Liberals and Reformists Derailed the Struggle for Integration
Alexander, Don
Article
2004
There is a lot of talk today about multiculturalism, diversity, whiteness and "racialized subjects" and other liberal jargon that essentially attempts to erase the centrality of anti-black racism and ...
For Black Liberation Through Socialist Revolution! Part One: Contradictions of the Civil Rights Movement: A Marxist Analysis
Coleman, Diana
Article
2012
We describe the black population in the U.S. as an oppressed race-color caste. From their arrival in this country, the Negro people have been an integral part of American class society while at the sa...
Forced Passages: Imprisoned Radical Intellectuals and the U.S. Prison Regime
Rodriguez, Dylan
Book
2005
The dramatic rise and consolidation of America's prison system has devastated lives and communities, but it has also transformed prisons into sites of political discourse and resistance, as they have ...
Freedom rides: Connexipedia Article
Article
Freedom Riders were Civil Rights activists who rode on interstate buses into the segregated southern United States.
Freedom Summer: Connexipedia Article
Article
A campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters.
From Jenner to Dolezal: One Trans Good, the Other Not So Much
Reed, Adolph Jr.
Article
2015
As is ever clearer and ever more important to note, race politics is not an alternative to class politics; it is a class politics, the politics of the left-wing of neoliberalism. It is the expression ...
The Fusion of Anabaptist, Indian and African as the American Radical Tradition
Goldner, Loren
Article
1987
The native American radical tradition, originating ultimately in the radical religious currents who "lost" at the very dawn of capitalism, and their meeting with the non-Western peoples--Indian and Af...
Tim Hector: A Caribbean Radical's Story
Buhle, Paul
Book
2006
An account of the life of Antiguan activist Tim Hector.
James, C.L.R. - Writings - Index
James, C.L.R.
Article
Writings of C.L.R. James (1901-1989).
Journey of Reconciliation: Connexipedia Article
Article
An attempt in 1947 to challenge segregation laws on interstate buses in the Southern United States, through non-violent direct action.
Lessons of the Civil Rights Movement (Part One): Police Terror and Black Oppression
Coleman, Diana
Unclassified
2015
Police reform is a hoax and a hustle. Federal investigations go nowhere and the Democrats are simply the soft cops of the capitalist system. There is no road to black liberation and the liberation of ...
The limits of anti-racism
Reed, Adolph J.
Article
2009
The contemporary discourse of 'antiracism' is focused much more on taxonomy than politics. It emphasizes the name by which we should call some strains of inequality -- whether they should be broadly r...
The Lost Revolution
Malik, Kenan
Article
2014
A discussion of the Haitian revolution, read through the lens of Julia Gaffield's paper on the lost and found Haitian Declaration of Independence.
The Making of Jericho Road: Against The Current vol. 132
Williams, Charles
Article
2008
An interview with Michael Honey. The paperback edition of Michael Honey’s Going Down Jericho Road: The Memphis Strike, Martin Luther King’s Last Campaign is released this January 2008.
Malcolm X Research Site
Website
A comprehensive website on the life and legacy of Malcolm X , with text, film, video, graphics and more, plus a large listing of African American scholars on the left, with links to their sites and wo...
May Day & SDS & SNCC Jubilee
Linebaugh, Peter
Article
2010
Class consciousness is the knowledge that emancipation is ours. Class struggle is the fight for it, the fight to be a class, and then the fight to abolish the class system. It is not economistic; it...
Nader, Greens and Socialists: Against The Current vol. 91
Hawkins, Howie
Article
2001
Blaming Ralph Nader for Bush is like blaming the abolitionists for slavery. The Greens ran Nader to end corporate oligarchy, not to support one wing of the oligarchy as a lesser evil against the other...
Negroes in the Civil War
James, C.L.R. (writing as J.R. Johnson)
Article
1943
The struggle of the Negro masses derives its peculiar intensity from the simple fact that what they are struggling for is not abstract but is always perfectly visible around them. In their instinctive...
The 1960 Sit-ins in Context
Oppenheimer, Marty
Article
2010
The Civil Rights Movement that we associate with the 1960s was the culmination of a vast set of social and economic changes. The tradition of Black struggle itself, going back to the very beginnings o...
Obama and "I Have a Dream" in 2008: Against The Current vol. 132
Miah, Malik
Article
2008
As we enter the 2008 presidential election, it is noteworthy that Illinois Senator Barack Obama is still a serious contender for the Democratic Party nomination. I say “noteworthy” because his campaig...
On Roediger's Wages of Whiteness
Allen, Theodore, W.
Article
2002
An extended discussion and critique of David Roediger's book Wages of Whiteness. Allen writes: "David Roediger's Wages of Whiteness, because of its almost universal acceptance for use in colleges and ...
150 Years Since the Emancipation Proclamation: Finish the Civil War!
Article
2013
The Emancipation Proclamation was a pledge, a promise. It only freed slaves in areas that were not yet controlled by Union armies, true enough. But in that sense it was like the Declaration of Indepen...
Other Voices: The Connexions Newsletter - September 10, 2015: Labour Day issue
Diemer, Ulli (editor); Rickwood, Darien Yawching (production)
Serial Publication (Periodical)
2015
Labour Day issue, with articles examining the relentless pressure put on workers to work ever longer hours, at the cost of their health and family life; anti-worker legislation, Zapatista popular educ...
Other Voices: The Connexions Newsletter - February 20, 2016: Connexions Enters Its Fifth Decade
Diemer, Ulli (ed.)
Serial Publication (Periodical)
2016
This issue of Connexions Other Voices falls on the 40th anniversary of the publication of the very first Connexions newsletter, which was published in February 1976. That first issue carried the title...
Passionate Declarations: Essays on War and Justice
Zinn, Howard
Book
1990
Essays looking at American political ideology.
A People's History of the United States: 1492 - Present
Zinn, Howard
Book
1995
Zinn's history includes those most ignored by typical American textbook history, including Indians, blacks, women and workers.
Race and Class: The Wealth Gap: Against The Current vol. 88
Miah, Malik
Article
2000
Politicians and government officials point to the historic low unemployment level in the Black community as signs of a strong economy and a future where whites and African Americans will finally have ...
Race and Class: What the Jena 6 Case Shows: Against The Current vol. 131
Miah, Malik
Article
2007
Some 50,000 people converged on the small Louisiana town of Jena on September 20. The protest shook up not only the two-stoplight town but sent a loud siren across the country. The 85% white populatio...
Race and Class: Brown v. Board of Education 50 Years Later: Against The Current vol. 111
Miah, Malik
Article
2004
I found the headline of the May 17 Business Week article on the 50th anniversary of the famous Brown v. Board of Education landmark Supreme Court ruling, that "separate but equal" schools were unconst...
Race and Class in Civil War Mississippi
Spritzler, John
Article
2009
The poor whites of Mississippi who fought the Confederacy alongside slaves did so because of working class values that they shared with slaves. The fact that poor whites may have believed some racist ...
Randolph, A. Philip: Connexipedia Article
Article
African-American civil rights leader. (1889-1979).
Recovering Forgotten Voices: Against The Current vol. 132
Gilyard, Keith
Article
2008
A lover of American literature will come away from reading Alan Wald’s Trinity of Passion: The Literary Left and the Antifascist Crusade excited about the prospect of investigating a long list of curr...
Religion and the Rise of Labor and Black Detroit: Against The Current vol. 134
Higbee, Mark
Article
2008
Historians and other scholars have given Detroit plentiful attention, including some very important books, yet in this vital new study Angela Dillard manages to approach the Motor City’s past in sever...
Reverend Wright and Black Liberation Theology: Against The Current vol. 134
Miah, Malik
Article
2008
The groundswell of broad support for Barack Obama (both among Blacks and whites) is a phenomenon that deserves a serious analysis and understanding. It cannot be down played by passing it through the ...
Revisiting 'Black Power,' Race and Class
Dunayevskaya, Raya
Article
1967
There is no such suprahistorical abstraction as racism. In each historical period it was something different. It was one thing during slavery, another during Reconstruction, and quite something else t...
The Revolutionary Answer to the Negro Problem in the USA
James, C.L.R.
Article
1948
The impetus of the Negro movement toward the revolutionary forces, which we have traced in the past, is stronger today than ever before.
Seeds of Fire: A People's Chronology
Diemer, Ulli
Article
2012
Recalling events that happened on this day in history. Memories of struggle, resistance and persistence.
The Seminole-African Alliance : World News Trust
Mickey Z.
Article
2014
The Native American Indian people that comprised the Seminole Nation grew out of the Creek Nation in Florida. Multilingual and diverse, the Seminoles (from a word meaning “runaway”) became infamous fo...
Seven News
Serial Publication (Periodical)
1970
Seven News (7 News) was a community newspaper published in the area of Toronto east of downtown which at the time was known as Ward 7. Seven News was published from 1970 to 1985. Seven News is no long...
Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II
Blackmon, Douglas A.
Book
2008
An account of how African Americans were forcibly enslaved by a corrupt legal system in the southern States, from the end of the Civil War through WWII.
SNCC: The New Abolitionists
Zinn, Howard
Book
1964
An account of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
SNCC at 50
Walker, Corey D.B.
Article
2010
The fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is vitally important not just for learning and understanding the past but, more importantly, for imagin...
SNCC: Same Lesson, 50 Years On: Power Yields Nothing Without Demand
Sigal, Clancy
Article
2010
The SNCC lesson is that power yields nothing without demand and the guts to back it up.
SNCC's 50-Year Legacy
El-Amin, Theresa
Article
2010
Celebrating SNCC's legacy.
Stanley Crouch, Neocon or Ellisonian?
Robinson, Greg
Article
1997
Crouch clearly feels isolated within progressive circles, but it is the Left that most desperately needs to retain the message about building a cohesive democratic society. With that instinct for impr...
Staying Power: The history of black people in Britain
Fryer, Peter
Book
2010
Peter Fryer reveals how Africans, Asians and their descendants, previously hidden from history, have profoundly influenced and shaped events in Britain over the course of the last two thousand years.
Still Got the News: Against The Current vol. 84
Esch, Betsy
Article
2000
As a student activist at the University of Michigan in the middle and late 1980s, I was part of a coalition of activists who planned and carried out a democratic takeover of our school's newspaper, Th...
Thieving Sons of Bushes: Against The Current vol. 91
Miah, Malik
Article
2001
“Never Trust a Son of Bush” was one of many signs at George W. Bush's presidential inauguration in Washington, D.C. on January 20. Some 25,000 marched in Washington and 15,000 rallied in San Francisco...
This Nonviolent Stuff'll Get You Killed: How Guns Made the Civil Rights Movement Possible
Cobb, Charles E. Jr.
Book
2014
Charles Cobb, a veteran civil rights activist who served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the American South, unfolds a powerful narrative about Southern grass...
Turner, Nat: Connexipedia Article
Article
American slave who led a slave rebellion in 1831. (1800-1831).
UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: The Black Panther Party
Audio
The UC Berkeley Social Activism Sound Recording Project is a partnership between the UC Berkeley Library, the Pacifica Foundation, and other private and institutional sources. The intent of the projec...
The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration
Wilkerson, Isabel
Book
2010
Wilkerson chronicles the decades-long migration of black citizens who fled the South for northern and western cities, in search of a better life. From 1915 to 1970, this exodus of almost six million p...
What is the Left?
Stephens, R.L.
Article
Stephens argues that class struggle is central to overcoming oppression.
Why the Newberry Library Is Collecting Black Lives Matter Artifacts
Hurst, Adrienne
Article
2016
Archivists hope to crowdsource historical documentation of today's civil-rights movements.
Women Stand Up, Fight Back: Against The Current vol. 133
Tribich, Chloe
Article
2008
What would it mean to truly end gender-and-race-based violence? How can radicals acknowledge the totalizing violence of white supremacy while also accounting for the very diverse, and sometimes confli...
'Worse than Slavery': Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice
Oshinsky, David M.
Book
1997
After the abolition of slavery the white rulers of Mississippi developed a new system for keeping the ex-slaves in line: laws were passed to maintain white supremacy, including the system of convict l...
The Writings of David Roediger
Horowitz, Roger
Article
1997
Roediger criticizes Marxists for too often reducing racial discrimination to conflicts over resources, such as jobs or housing, that are manipulated by a society's upper classes in order to divert att...

Sources Experts & Spokespersons

Sources Library

Made in America
An Informal History of the English Language in the United States
Bryson, Bill
1994
A history of American English.
Under a Soprano Sky
Sanchez, Sonia
1989
Sanchez's poetry combines her pristine lyricism with her strong voice and black female themes to challenge not only the effete definition of poetry, but also the very intellectual hyprocrisy which und...

From the Connexions Archives

Black Heritage Club
Organization profile published 1986
Organization
1986