African Americans

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Connexions Library

African American Folksong and American Cultural Politics: The Lawrence Gellert Story
Conforth, Bruce M.
Book
2013
Story of the collection of African American folk music compiled by Lawrence Gellert. Compiled between the World Wars, the recordings were adopted by the American Left as the voice of the American prol...
African-American Self-Defense: Guns and the Freedom Struggle
Miah, Malik
Article
2015
A Review of "This Noviolent Stuff'll Get You Killed: How Guns Made the Cvil Rights Movement Possible" by Carles E. Cobb. Jr.
African-American Self-Defense
Miah, Malik
Article
2015
A review of Charles E. Cobb Jr.'s book, "This Non-violent Stuff'll Get You Killed" on the role of guns in the US civil rights movement of the 1960s.
African-American Socialist Pioneer: Against The Current vol. 144
Lang, Clarence
Article
2010
In holding aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century America, Winston James singled out Hubert Henry Harrison for his “pioneering role in what became known as the N...
African Americans' Forced Labor: Against The Current vol. 147
Thompson, Heather Ann
Article
2010
As Americans we are taught that slavery was abolished after the Civil War. A close reading of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution reveals, however, that this was not exactly the...
The All-American Skin Game
Crouch, Stanley
Book
1995
Crouch firmly believes that Blacks, having catalyzed the historical struggle of Americans to realize democratic ideals, have at least as much responsibility to maintain them as other groups, and he is...
Alternative Press Annual 1983, The
Case, Patricia (ed)
Book
1984
American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America
Hedges, Chris
Book
2006
Hedges examines the Christian Right's origins, its driving motivation and its dark ideological underpinnings, with interviews and coverage of events such as pro-life rallies and weeklong classes on co...
American Primitive in Red, Black and White: Race and Class in the U.S.
Goldner, Loren
Article
1989
The centrality of race in the formation of the American working class, its inseparability from the question of class, can be stated very succinctly: in 1848 and 1968, when working-class upsurges explo...
The Anatomy of A Rebellion: Against The Current vol. 84
Ortiz, Paul
Article
2000
The first time I traveled to Los Angeles with a comrade of mine in the labor movement, I had one of those sharp educational experiences that cannot be replicated in the classroom.
Apartheid, Militarism and the U.S. Southeast
Seidman, Ann
Book
1990
This is an easy to understand economic report on the joint relation between U.S. policies in Africa and jobs, income and investment in the U. S. Southeast. Seidman examines how the daily realities of ...
Beyond Black and White: Transforming African-American Politics
Marable, Manning
Book
1995
Marable argues for a new "transformationalist" approach in which there is an emergence of a new black cultural identity which also includes all the poor and exploited in united struggle against oppres...
Black American Feminisms
Website
An extensive bibliography of black American Feminist thought from across the disciplines.
"Black Americans for a Better Future" Super PAC 100% Funded by Rich White Guys
Schwartz, John
Article
2016
New FEC filings show that all of the $417,250 in monetary donations to a Super PAC called "Black Americans for a Better Future" comes from conservative white businessmen-- including $400,000, or 96 pe...
Black History and the Class Struggle
Serial Publication (Periodical)
2005
Articles include: "A Life in the Black Panther Party — We Want Freedom — A Review of a Book by Mumia Abu-Jamal," "How the Liberals and Reformists Derailed the Struggle for Integration — For Black Libe...
Black Immigrants, 'Model' Minority? Plus: Don Imus
Dickerson, Debra
Article
2008
'Black' is a label which obscures more than it illuminates.
The Black Panthers Reconsidered
Farber, Samuel
Article
1996
To understand the Black Panther Party, we must place it in the context of the exhaustion of the Civil Rights movement by the mid-to-late sixties.
The Black Panthers: Movie Review
Clancy, M.J.
Article
2015
With its powerful archival footage and interviews with former Black Panther Party members, Stanley Nelson’s documentary The Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution reopens a chapter of black histor...
"Calm Reflection" or Justice?
Figueroa, Meleiza
Article
2013
Afterthoughts on Justice and racism after the movie Fruitvale Station.
Canada's 1960s: The Ironies of Identity in a Rebellious Era
Palmer, Bryan D.
Book
2008
A history of social movements of the 1960s, including Canada’s student and anti-war movements, the rise of women’s liberation, labour agitation, and Quebec’s independence movement.
Challenging the Mississippi Fire Bombers: Memories of Mississippi 1964-65
Dann, Jim
Book
2013
With a firsthand account of the details and thoughtful descriptions of key people on the front lines, author Jim Dann brings the historic period, the June 1964 civil rights struggle to register as man...
Class and the African-American Leadership Crisis
Miah, Malik
Article
1996
This market economy can't solve the real problems of African Americans. Worse, the scapegoating of society's most vulnerable members (immigrants, people of color, women and gays) is on the rise.
Class Notes: Posing As Politics and Other Thoughts on the American Scene
Reed, Adolph L.
Book
2001
Reed argues against the solipsistic approaches of cultural or identity politics, and in favour of class-based political interpretation and action. Class Notes moves on to tackle race relations, ethnic...
Class-Struggle Road to Black Freedom: Part Two: Marxism vs. the Myth of "White Skin Privilege"
Article
2015
The victory of the socialist revolution in this country will be achieved through the united struggle of black and white workers.
Class-Struggle Road to Black Freedom: Part One: The Roots of Black Oppression
Article
2015
The purpose of this talk is to motivate a Marxist materialist program for the fight for black freedom as opposed to the idealism embodied in both black nationalism and guilty white liberalism, includi...
Collective Courage: A History of African American Cooperative Economic Thought and Practice
Nembhard, Jessica Gordon
Book
2014
In Collective Courage, Jessica Gordon Nembhard chronicles African American cooperative business ownership and its place in the movements for Black civil rights and economic equality.
Coming Home to the Struggle: Against The Current vol. 134
Thompson, Wendy
Article
2008
I became a political activist at the age of 12, when I marched for open housing in Evanston, Illinois. We lived next to the Black community in Evanston; African-American students made up 40% of my gra...
Connexions Library: Race, Racism, Ethnicity, Multiculturalism Focus
Website
Selected articles, books, websites and other resources on race, racism, ethnicity, multiculturalism, identity.
The Crisis of Color and Democracy
Marable, Manning
Book
1992
Essays attacking racist sterotypes and cynical arguments which America's national leaders use to obscure both the roots of today's social problems and their solutions.
The Dialectics of Community Control
Aronowitz, Stanley
Article
1970
The movement for community control will fall short often, unless it becomes a broader struggle for popular, democratic control of all public institutions and the economy.
Django Unchained, or, The Help: How "Cultural Politics" Is Worse Than No Politics at All, and Why
Reed, Adolph Jr.
Article
2013
On reflection, it's possible to see that Django Unchained and The Help are basically different versions of the same movie. Both dissolve political economy and social relations into individual quests a...
Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movements: A Radical Democratic Vision
Ransby, Barbara
Book
2003
An insightful biography on one of the leading organizers of the American civil rights movement.
Failure of a Dream?: Essays in the History of American Socialism
Laslettt, John H. M.; Lipset, Seymour Martin
Book
1974
Examines the reasons for the relative weakness of American socialism.
For true liberation, Black Lives Matter is not enough
Williams, Douglas
Article
2015
A movement that held true to a goal of liberation would challenge the fundamental assumptions of social, economic, and political organization under capitalism.
Freedom rides: Connexipedia Article
Article
Freedom Riders were Civil Rights activists who rode on interstate buses into the segregated southern United States.
Freedom Summer: Connexipedia Article
Article
A campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters.
Grassroots Power, Women and Transformation: An Interview with George Friday: Against The Current vol. 85
Luce, Stephanie
Article
2000
George Friday is an organizer with the Independent Progressive Politics Network (IPPN)—a national network of organizations working to build alternatives to the two-party system. An African-American wo...
A history of American lynchings
Hopkina, Ruth
Article
2017
A soil collection project is commemorating the forgotten victims of lynching and helping to tell their stories.
Inhuman Bondage
Davis, David Brion
Book
2008
Looks at slavery in the American South, desribing black slaveholding planters, the rise of the Cotton Kingdom, the daily life of ordinary slaves, the highly destructive slave trade, the sexual exploit...
James, C.L.R. - Writings - Index
James, C.L.R.
Article
Writings of C.L.R. James (1901-1989).
Journey of Reconciliation: Connexipedia Article
Article
An attempt in 1947 to challenge segregation laws on interstate buses in the Southern United States, through non-violent direct action.
Lessons of the Civil Rights Movement (Part One): Police Terror and Black Oppression
Coleman, Diana
Unclassified
2015
Police reform is a hoax and a hustle. Federal investigations go nowhere and the Democrats are simply the soft cops of the capitalist system. There is no road to black liberation and the liberation of ...
The Making of Jericho Road: Against The Current vol. 132
Williams, Charles
Article
2008
An interview with Michael Honey. The paperback edition of Michael Honey’s Going Down Jericho Road: The Memphis Strike, Martin Luther King’s Last Campaign is released this January 2008.
Malcolm X Research Site
Website
A comprehensive website on the life and legacy of Malcolm X , with text, film, video, graphics and more, plus a large listing of African American scholars on the left, with links to their sites and wo...
Mass Incarceration and Black Oppression in America: The New Jim Crow and Liberal Reformism
Article
2012
The singular focus on mass incarceration as the embodiment of racial oppression has a purpose: it poses the fight for black freedom as a matter of "dismantling" that system, much as the civil rights m...
May Day & SDS & SNCC Jubilee
Linebaugh, Peter
Article
2010
Class consciousness is the knowledge that emancipation is ours. Class struggle is the fight for it, the fight to be a class, and then the fight to abolish the class system. It is not economistic; it...
The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It: The Memoir of Jo Ann Gibson Robinson
Robinson, Jo Ann Gibson
Book
1987
Robinson recounts the origins and sustaining force of the famous boycott led by Montgomery's African American women.
Nader, Greens and Socialists: Against The Current vol. 91
Hawkins, Howie
Article
2001
Blaming Ralph Nader for Bush is like blaming the abolitionists for slavery. The Greens ran Nader to end corporate oligarchy, not to support one wing of the oligarchy as a lesser evil against the other...
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave & Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
Douglass, Frederick; Jacobs, Harriet; (Introduction by Kwame Anthony Appiah)
Book
Two first-person accounts of African-American slavery.
The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness
Alexander, Michelle
Book
2010
Argues that Jim Crow and legal racial segregation have been replaced by mass race-based incarceration as a system of social control.
The 1960 Sit-ins in Context
Oppenheimer, Marty
Article
2010
The Civil Rights Movement that we associate with the 1960s was the culmination of a vast set of social and economic changes. The tradition of Black struggle itself, going back to the very beginnings o...
Obama, African Americans and War on the Working Poor
Miah, Malik
Article
2013
Malcom X's speech given nearly 50 years ago still remains valid today even in the age of the first African-American president and a sizable Congressional Black Caucus. While much has changed legally a...
Obama and "I Have a Dream" in 2008: Against The Current vol. 132
Miah, Malik
Article
2008
As we enter the 2008 presidential election, it is noteworthy that Illinois Senator Barack Obama is still a serious contender for the Democratic Party nomination. I say “noteworthy” because his campaig...
On Roediger's Wages of Whiteness
Allen, Theodore, W.
Article
2002
An extended discussion and critique of David Roediger's book Wages of Whiteness. Allen writes: "David Roediger's Wages of Whiteness, because of its almost universal acceptance for use in colleges and ...
Polemics and Prophecies 1967-1970
Stone, I.F.
Book
1972
An anthology of I.F. Stone's articles from 1967 - 1970.
Prison Labor: Workin' For The Man: Article in Covert Action Quarterly #54, Fall 1995
Erlich, Reese
Article
1995
Article analysing the roots of prison labour in America.
Race & Class: Obama & the Politics of Protest: Against The Current vol. 146
Miah, Malik
Article
2010
Consider the following contradiction of modern African-American politics: We have the first African-American president (he checked “Black” on the new census form) offering hope to millions of working-...
Race & Class: Obama Forgets Black Community: Against The Current vol. 145
Miah, Malik
Article
2010
What I found most striking about President Barack Obama’s first “State of the Union” address before Congress on January 27 was what he didn’t say. In his 70-minute speech on the economy as the first p...
Race and Class: Paris to New Orleans: Against The Current vol. 120
Miah, Malik
Article
2006
It turns out that the city of lights and city of jazz have a lot in common. The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and militant explosions in the suburbs of Paris expose the underbelly of racism and class...
Race and Class: The Wealth Gap: Against The Current vol. 88
Miah, Malik
Article
2000
Politicians and government officials point to the historic low unemployment level in the Black community as signs of a strong economy and a future where whites and African Americans will finally have ...
Race and Class: Brown v. Board of Education 50 Years Later: Against The Current vol. 111
Miah, Malik
Article
2004
I found the headline of the May 17 Business Week article on the 50th anniversary of the famous Brown v. Board of Education landmark Supreme Court ruling, that "separate but equal" schools were unconst...
Race and Class in Civil War Mississippi
Spritzler, John
Article
2009
The poor whites of Mississippi who fought the Confederacy alongside slaves did so because of working class values that they shared with slaves. The fact that poor whites may have believed some racist ...
Racial Capitalism and the "Digital Divide": Against The Current vol. 84
Miah, Malik
Article
2000
The dialogue on race and nationality in the United States has always been conducted from the standpoint of the dominant racial group—whites. Not surprisingly, President Clinton's commission on race p...
Racism and Responsibility: Against The Current vol. 133
Fish, George
Article
2008
Malik Miah writes in Against the Current 131, “[Orlando] Patterson, and others in Black academia and middle-class civil rights organizations, are right to point to internal problems within the Black c...
Randolph, A. Philip: Connexipedia Article
Article
African-American civil rights leader. (1889-1979).
Rebellions and Black Wealth: Against The Current vol. 116
Miah, Malik
Article
2005
What is a working-class family’s most valuable asset? What does every family seek to own?
Religion and the Rise of Labor and Black Detroit: Against The Current vol. 134
Higbee, Mark
Article
2008
Historians and other scholars have given Detroit plentiful attention, including some very important books, yet in this vital new study Angela Dillard manages to approach the Motor City’s past in sever...
Response to George Fish: Against The Current vol. 133
Miah, Malik
Article
2008
George Fish raises an important point about the “taking personal responsibility” debate taking place within the Black community, especially at the academic and leadership level. But his criticism of m...
Reverend Wright and Black Liberation Theology: Against The Current vol. 134
Miah, Malik
Article
2008
The groundswell of broad support for Barack Obama (both among Blacks and whites) is a phenomenon that deserves a serious analysis and understanding. It cannot be down played by passing it through the ...
Revisiting 'Black Power,' Race and Class
Dunayevskaya, Raya
Article
1967
There is no such suprahistorical abstraction as racism. In each historical period it was something different. It was one thing during slavery, another during Reconstruction, and quite something else t...
Revolution of Conscience: Martin Luther King Jr., and the Philosophy of Nonviolence
Moses, Greg
Book
1998
Moses explores key ideas about Martin Luther King Jr. and his philosophy in relation to the American civil rights movement, racial equality and nonviolence.
The Rise and Fall of the Black Panther Party: A Revolutionary Marxist Analysis
Alexander, Donald
Article
1993
A talk recounting the beginnings and tragic end of the Black Panther Power, a radical black power movement and political organization.
Rising Up Against Police Violence, From the Black Panthers to #BlackLivesMatter
Thompson, Juan
Article
2015
I turned away more than once while watching Stanley Nelson's documentary The Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution. I averted my eyes from the screen when FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's nefarious...
A Short History of Black Voter Suppression
Parker, Nicholas
Article
2012
The Right's organized movement to suppress the votes of African Americans and Latin Americans, and the urban and rural poor by means of the passing of voter ID (Poll Tax) laws in states receives no me...
Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II
Blackmon, Douglas A.
Book
2008
An account of how African Americans were forcibly enslaved by a corrupt legal system in the southern States, from the end of the Civil War through WWII.
SNCC at 50
Walker, Corey D.B.
Article
2010
The fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is vitally important not just for learning and understanding the past but, more importantly, for imagin...
SNCC's 50-Year Legacy
El-Amin, Theresa
Article
2010
Celebrating SNCC's legacy.
The Socialist Register 1982: Volume 19: A Survey of Movements & Ideas
Miliband, Ralph; Saville, John (eds.)
Serial Publication (Periodical)
1982
Stanley Crouch, Neocon or Ellisonian?
Robinson, Greg
Article
1997
Crouch clearly feels isolated within progressive circles, but it is the Left that most desperately needs to retain the message about building a cohesive democratic society. With that instinct for impr...
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: Connexipedia Article
Article
One of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
Thieving Sons of Bushes: Against The Current vol. 91
Miah, Malik
Article
2001
“Never Trust a Son of Bush” was one of many signs at George W. Bush's presidential inauguration in Washington, D.C. on January 20. Some 25,000 marched in Washington and 15,000 rallied in San Francisco...
This Nonviolent Stuff'll Get You Killed: How Guns Made the Civil Rights Movement Possible
Cobb, Charles E. Jr.
Book
2014
Charles Cobb, a veteran civil rights activist who served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the American South, unfolds a powerful narrative about Southern grass...
Towards the Abolition of Whiteness
Roediger, David
Book
1994
Roediger's genda is to show how race consciousness among whites needs to be fought so that the working class can be brought to an emancipatory agenda.
Turner, Nat: Connexipedia Article
Article
American slave who led a slave rebellion in 1831. (1800-1831).
Uncovering the Sixties: Life and Times of the Undergound Press
Peck, Abe
Book
1985
A book about the Sixties and how they were recorded by radical participants. It traces how movements and communities convinced that their news did not fit into the agenda of mainstream media covered t...
Vote as the Class You Are, Not the Race You Aren't: Scott, Frank
Article
2010
Many upper middle-professional class members of society who truly wish for a more just nation are either helpless to, totally incapable of, or have little desire to confront real power or create socia...
The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration
Wilkerson, Isabel
Book
2010
Wilkerson chronicles the decades-long migration of black citizens who fled the South for northern and western cities, in search of a better life. From 1915 to 1970, this exodus of almost six million p...
What Black Lives Matter means for Labor
Billeaux, Michael
Article
2015
An account and analysis of the centrality of the Black freedom struggle to the working class movement as a whole, arguing that the struggle for Black liberation is a precondition for human liberation ...
What We Don't Talk About When We Talk About Rural Poverty
Gurley, Lauren
Article
2017
Gurly analyzes the institutional reasons behind widespread poverty, depopulation, and unemployment in Jefferson County, Mississippi.

Sources Experts & Spokespersons

National Archives of the United States
As the nation's record keeper, it is our vision that all Americans will understand the vital role records play in a democracy, and their own personal stake in the National Archives. Our holdings and diverse programs will be availa...
National Museum of American History
The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History dedicates its collections and scholarship to inspiring a broader understanding of our nation and its many peoples. We create opportunities for learning, stimulate imaginations,...

Sources Library

Black Native Americans in the United States
Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia
Black Native Americans is a term that refers to people of African-American descent, usually with significant Native American ancestry, who also have strong ties to Native American culture, social, and...
Black Seminoles
Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia
The descendants of free blacks and some runaway slaves (maroons), mostly Gullahs who escaped from coastal South Carolina and Georgia rice plantations into the Spanish Florida wilderness beginning as e...
Cherokee freedmen controversy
Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia
An ongoing political and tribal dispute between the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and descendants of the Cherokee Freedmen regarding tribal citizenship.
Cherokees Vote: Slave Descendants Expelled
2011
The Supreme Court of the Cherokee Nation has upheld a 2007 tribal decision to kick thousands of descendants of black slaves out of the tribe.
Choctaw Freedmen
Sources Select Resources Encyclopedia
The Choctaw freedmen were enslaved African Americans who became part of the Choctaw Nation with emancipation after the American Civil War.
The John Lewis Conundrum: Caring for Justice or Carrying Water
Fikre, Teodrose
2017
What the author is writing about John Lewis is not so much a condemnation as it is a reflection of the very meaning of justice and how we can fight for it.
The Lives of Amiri Baraka
Hunter, Kim D.
2014
A tribute to the life of author and poet Amiri Baraka who was active in the American Black Arts movement.